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Title: Sequential platelet-derived growth factor-simvastatin release promotes dentoalveolar regeneration
Authors: Chang, P.-C. 
Chong, L.Y.
Dovban, A.S.M.
Lim, L.P. 
Lim, J.C.
Kuo, M.Y.-P.
Wang, C.-H. 
Issue Date: 1-Jan-2014
Source: Chang, P.-C., Chong, L.Y., Dovban, A.S.M., Lim, L.P., Lim, J.C., Kuo, M.Y.-P., Wang, C.-H. (2014-01-01). Sequential platelet-derived growth factor-simvastatin release promotes dentoalveolar regeneration. Tissue Engineering - Part A 20 (1-2) : 356-364. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Objectives: Timely augmentation of the physiological events of dentoalveolar repair is a prerequisite for the optimization of the outcome of regeneration. This study aimed to develop a treatment strategy to promote dentoalveolar regeneration by the combined delivery of the early mitogenic factor platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the late osteogenic differentiation factor simvastatin. Materials and Methods: By using the coaxial electrohydrodynamic atomization technique, PDGF and simvastatin were encapsulated in a double-walled poly(d,l-lactide) and poly(d,l-lactide-co- glycolide) (PDLLA-PLGA) microspheres in five different modes: microspheres encapsulating bovine serum albumin (BB), PDGF alone (XP), simvastatin alone (SB), PDGF-in-core and simvastatin-in-shell (PS), and simvastatin-in-core and PDGF-in-shell (SP). The microspheres were characterized using scanning electronic microscopy, and the in vitro release profile was evaluated. Microspheres were delivered to fill large osteotomy sites on rat maxillae for 14 and 28 days, and the outcome of regeneration was evaluated by microcomputed tomography and histological assessments. Results: Uniform 20-μm controlled release microspheres were successfully fabricated. Parallel PDGF-simvastatin release was noted in the PS group, and the fast release of PDGF followed by the slow release of simvastatin was noted in the SP group. The promotion of osteogenesis was observed in XP, PS, and SP groups at day 14, whereas the SP group demonstrated the greatest bone fill, trabecular numbers, and thickest trabeculae. Bone bridging was evident in the PS and SP group, with significantly increased osteoblasts in the SP group, and osteoclastic cell recruitment was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. At day 28, osteogenesis was promoted in all bioactive molecule-treated groups. Initial corticalization was noted in the XP, PS, and SP groups. Osteoblasts appeared to be decreased in all groups, and significantly, a greater osteoclastic cell recruitment was noted in the SB and SP groups. Conclusions: Both PDGF and simvastatin facilitate dentoalveolar regeneration, and sequential PDGF-simvastatin release (SP group) further accelerated the regeneration process through the enhancement of osteoblastogenesis and the promotion of bone maturation. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Source Title: Tissue Engineering - Part A
ISSN: 1937335X
DOI: 10.1089/ten.tea.2012.0687
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