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Title: Microstructure of cement-treated Singapore marine clay
Authors: Kamruzzaman, A.H.M.
Chew, S.H. 
Lee, F.H. 
Keywords: Calcium aluminium silicate hydrate
Calcium silicate hydrate
Cement-treated clay
Cementitious products
Issue Date: 2006
Citation: Kamruzzaman, A.H.M., Chew, S.H., Lee, F.H. (2006). Microstructure of cement-treated Singapore marine clay. Ground Improvement 10 (3) : 113-123. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This paper examines the microstructural behaviour of cement-treated soft Singapore marine clay. The microstructure was investigated using X-ray diffraction, (XRD) scanning electron microscopy, (SEM) mercury intrusion porosimetry, and laser diffractometric measurement of particle size distribution. The XRD analysis of cement-treated clay enables the identification of the formation of cementitious products, namely calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium aluminium silicate hydrate (CASH). The relative amount of cementitious products (CSH + CASH) is found to increase with increase of the cement content. The fabric of the treated clay changes to flocculated type, comprising clay-cement clusters separated by large intercluster voids with smaller intra-cluster pores, as can be seen from the SEM images of treated clay. This change is more pronounced with higher cement content and prolonged curing time. The flocculation of the clay particles also causes water to be trapped within the clay-cement cluster and increases both the effective size of the particles or cluster and the entrance pore diameter. This understanding clearly helps to explain the observed engineering behaviour of cement-treated clays commonly found in deep cement mixing or jet grouting techniques. © 2006 Thomas Telford Ltd.
Source Title: Ground Improvement
ISSN: 1365781X
DOI: 10.1680/grim.2006.10.3.113
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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