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Title: Enhanced Kidney Stone Fragmentation by Short Delay Tandem Conventional and Modified Lithotriptor Shock Waves: A Numerical Analysis
Authors: Tham, L.-M.
Lee, H.P. 
Lu, C.
Keywords: high-energy shock waves
kidney calculi
Issue Date: Jul-2007
Citation: Tham, L.-M., Lee, H.P., Lu, C. (2007-07). Enhanced Kidney Stone Fragmentation by Short Delay Tandem Conventional and Modified Lithotriptor Shock Waves: A Numerical Analysis. Journal of Urology 178 (1) : 314-319. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose: We evaluated the effectiveness of modified lithotriptor shock waves using computer models. Materials and Methods: Finite element models were used to simulate the propagation of lithotriptor shock waves in human renal calculi in vivo. Kidney stones were assumed to be spherical, homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic, and immersed in a continuum fluid. Single and tandem shock wave pulses modified to intensify the collapse of cavitation bubbles near the stone surface to increase fragmentation efficiency and suppress the expansion of intraluminal bubbles for decreased vascular injury were analyzed. The effectiveness of the modified shock waves was assessed by comparing the states of loading in the renal calculi induced by these shock waves to those produced by conventional shock waves. Results: Our numerical simulations revealed that modified shock waves produced marginally lower stresses in spherical renal calculi than those produced by conventional shock waves. Tandem pulses of conventional or modified shock waves produced peak stresses in the front and back halves of the renal calculi. However, the single shock wave pulses generated significant peak stresses in only the back halves of the renal calculi. Conclusions: Our numerical simulations suggest that for direct stress wave induced fragmentation modified shock waves should be as effective as conventional shock waves for fragmenting kidney stones. Also, with a small interval of 20 microseconds between the pulses tandem pulse lithotripsy using modified or conventional shock waves could be considerably more effective than single pulse lithotripsy for fragmenting kidney stones. © 2007 American Urological Association.
Source Title: Journal of Urology
ISSN: 00225347
DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2007.03.009
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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