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|Title:||An experimental study of round jets in cross-flow|
|Source:||Kelso, R.M.,Lim, T.T.,Perry, A.E. (1996-01-10). An experimental study of round jets in cross-flow. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 306 : 111-144. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||The structure of round jets in cross-flow was studied using flow visualization techniques and flying-hot-wire measurements. The study was restricted to jet to freestream velocity ratios ranging from 2.0 to 6.0 and Reynolds numbers based on the jet diameter and free-stream velocity in the range of 440 to 6200. Flow visualization studies, together with time-averaged flying-hot-wire measurements in both vertical and horizontal sectional planes, have allowed the mean topological features of the jet in cross-flow to be identified using critical point theory. These features include the horseshoe (or necklace) vortex system originating just upstream of the jet, a separation region inside the pipe upstream of the pipe exit, the roll-up of the jet shear layer which initiates the counter-rotating vortex pair and the separation of the flat-wall boundary layer leading to the formation of the wake vortex system beneath the downstream side of the jet. The topology of the vortex ring roll-up of the jet shear layer was studied in detail using phase-averaged flying-hot-wire measurements of the velocity field when the roll-up was forced. From these data it is possible to examine the evolution of the shear layer topology. These results are supported by the flow visualization studies which also aid in their interpretation. The study also shows that, for velocity ratios ranging from 4.0 to 6.0, the unsteady upright vortices in the wake may form by different mechanisms, depending on the Reynolds number. It is found that at high Reynolds numbers, the upright vortex orientation in the wake may change intermittently from one configuration of vortex street to another. Three mechanisms are proposed to explain these observations.|
|Source Title:||Journal of Fluid Mechanics|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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