Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.06.003
Title: A high signal-to-noise ratio toroidal electron spectrometer for the SEM
Authors: Hoang, H.Q. 
Osterberg, M. 
Khursheed, A. 
Keywords: Backscattered electron spectrum
Scanning electron microscope
Secondary electron spectrum
Toroidal electron energy spectrometer
Voltage contrast
Issue Date: Jul-2011
Source: Hoang, H.Q., Osterberg, M., Khursheed, A. (2011-07). A high signal-to-noise ratio toroidal electron spectrometer for the SEM. Ultramicroscopy 111 (8) : 1093-1100. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.06.003
Abstract: This paper presents a high signal-to-noise ratio electron energy spectrometer attachment for the scanning electron microscope (SEM), designed to measure changes in specimen surface potential from secondary electrons and extract specimen atomic number information from backscattered electrons. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the spectrometer can in principle detect specimen voltage changes well into the sub-mV range, and distinguish close atomic numbers by a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 20. The spectrometer has applications for quantitatively mapping specimen surface voltage and atomic number variations on the nano-scale. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Source Title: Ultramicroscopy
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/54245
ISSN: 03043991
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultramic.2011.06.003
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