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Title: Experimental studies on a new bioactive material: HAIonomer cements
Authors: Yap, A.U.J. 
Pek, Y.S.
Kumar, R.A.
Cheang, P.
Khor, K.A.
Keywords: Glass ionomer
Issue Date: 2002
Citation: Yap, A.U.J., Pek, Y.S., Kumar, R.A., Cheang, P., Khor, K.A. (2002). Experimental studies on a new bioactive material: HAIonomer cements. Biomaterials 23 (3) : 955-962. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The lack of exotherm during setting, absence of monomer and improved release of incorporated therapeutic agents has resulted in the development of glass ionomer cements (GICs) for biomedical applications. In order to improve biocompatibility and biomechanically match GICs to bone, hydroxyapatite-ionomer (HAIonomer) hybrid cements were developed. Ultra-fine hydroxyapatite (HA) powders were produced using a new induction spraying technique that utilizes a radio-frequency source to spheriodize an atomized suspension containing HA crystallites. The spheriodized particulates were then held at 800°C for 4h in a carbolite furnace using a heating and cooling rate of 25°C/min to obtain almost fully crystalline HA powders. The heat-treated particles were characterized and introduced into a commercial glass ionomer cement. 4 (H4), 12 (H12) and 28 (H28) vol% of fluoroalumino silicate were substituted by crystalline HA particles that were dispersed using a high-speed dispersion technique. The HAIonomer cements were subjected to hardness, compressive and diametral tensile strength testing based upon BS6039:1981. The storage time were extended to one week to investigate the effects of cement maturation on mechanical properties. Commercially available capsulated GIC (GC) and GIC at maximum powder:liquid ratio (GM) served as comparisons. Results were analyzed using factorial ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc tests and independent samples t-test at significance level 0.05. The effect of time on hardness was material dependent. With the exception of H12, a significant increase in hardness was observed for all materials at one week. A significant increase in compressive strength was, however, observed for H12 over time. At 1 day and 1 week, the hardness of H28 was significantly lower than for GM, H4, and H12. No significant difference in compression and diametral tensile strengths were observed between materials at both time intervals. Results show that HAIonomers is a promising material, which possess good mechanical properties. Potential uses of this new material include bone cements and performed implants for hard tissue replacement in the field of otological, oral-maxillofacial and orthopedic surgery. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Biomaterials
ISSN: 01429612
DOI: 10.1016/S0142-9612(01)00208-3
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