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|Title:||Cardiovascular risk factors in relation to cigarette smoking: A population-based survey among Asians in Singapore|
|Authors:||Hughes, K. |
|Source:||Hughes, K., Ong, C.-N., Choo, M., Kuperan, P., Aw, T.-C. (1998). Cardiovascular risk factors in relation to cigarette smoking: A population-based survey among Asians in Singapore. Atherosclerosis 137 (2) : 253-258. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9150(97)00268-2|
|Abstract:||To investigate how cigarette smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, risk factors were compared between 166 cigarette smokers and 312 non-smokers, in a random sample of males (Chinese, Malays and Asian Indians) aged 30-69 years from the general population of Singapore. There was adjusted for age and ethnic group. The prevalence of hypertension was lower in cigarette smokers (15.2%) than non-smokers (21.9%), with the difference reduced by adjustment for body mass index (BMI). Smokers had: lower mean serum HDL-cholesterol (0.76 versus 0.81 mmol/l) and higher mean serum fasting triglyceride (1.92 versus 1.71 mmol/l), which will increase atherosclerosis; higher mean plasma fibrinogen (2.75 versus 2.67 g/l) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [PAI-l] (24.9 versus 22.2 ng/ml), which will increase thrombosis; and lower mean plasma vitamin C (4.4 versus 6.4 mg/l) and serum selenium (118 versus 123 μg]l), which may increase atherosclerosis. Adjustment for BMI slightly increased the differences for HDL-cholesterol, fasting triglyceride, fibrinogen and PAI-l, indicating that less generalised obesity among smokers reduces their increased cardiovascular disease risk. Smoking was not found to be related to: diabetes mellitus; serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoproteins A1 and B and lipoprotein(a); plasma factor VIIc and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2; and plasma vitamins A and E and serum ferritin. There was no evidence of increased insulin resistance in smokers, as measured by mean fasting serum insulin.|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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