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|Title:||Interleukin-6 production by bladder tumors is upregulated by BCG immunotherapy|
|Authors:||Esuvaranathan, K. |
interferon type II
|Citation:||Esuvaranathan, K., Alexandroff, A.B., McIntyre, M., Jackson, A.M., Prescott, S., Chisholm, G.D., James, K. (1995). Interleukin-6 production by bladder tumors is upregulated by BCG immunotherapy. Journal of Urology 154 (2 I) : 572-575. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(01)67113-1|
|Abstract:||Purpose: To determine whether BCG therapy could upregulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry of tumor biopsies and urinary cytospins and ELISA studies of urine from bladder cancer patients and TCC cell-line supernatants, before and after exposure to BCG, were performed. Results: Constitutive staining for IL-6 was found in the majority of bladder tumors. Interleukin-6 was detected in the urine of all 13 patients with carcinoma in situ and increased 5-fold during BCG therapy. Levels were variable but were greater in nonresponders (p <0.01). During therapy both detached bladder urothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stained for IL-6. Production of IL-6 increased in only 3 cell lines after exposure to BCG, but all 7 cell lines showed increases after exposure to interferon-γ (p =0.015). Grade 3 cell lines showed much greater upregulation than grade 1 and 2 cell lines. Conclusions: The increase in IL-6 during BCG therapy may be caused by urothelial cells as well as leukocytes. The higher levels seen in nonresponders may be due to either higher grade or persisting tumor.|
|Source Title:||Journal of Urology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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