Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1086/501061
Title: Light induces an increase in the pH of and a decrease in the ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa
Authors: Ip, Y.K. 
Loong, A.M.
Hiong, K.C.
Wong, W.P.
Chew, S.F.
Reddy, K. 
Sivaloganathan, B. 
Ballantyne, J.S.
Issue Date: May-2006
Citation: Ip, Y.K., Loong, A.M., Hiong, K.C., Wong, W.P., Chew, S.F., Reddy, K., Sivaloganathan, B., Ballantyne, J.S. (2006-05). Light induces an increase in the pH of and a decrease in the ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 79 (3) : 656-664. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1086/501061
Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine whether 12 h of light exposure would lead to an increase in the pH of and a decrease in the concentration of total ammonia in the extrapallial fluid of the giant clam Tridacna squamosa. We also aimed to elucidate indirectly whether movements of ammonia and/ or protons (H+) occurred between the extrapallial fluid and the outer mantle epithelium. The pH of the extrapallial fluid of T. squamosa exposed to 12 h of light was significantly higher than that of clams exposed to 12 h of darkness. Conversely, the total ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid of the former was significantly lower than that of the latter. In addition, the glutamine content in the mantle adjacent to the extrapallial fluid of clams exposed to 12 h of light was significantly greater than that of clams exposed to 12 h of darkness. These results suggest that in the extrapallial fluid of T. squamosa exposed to light, NH3 combined with H+ as NH 4 + and that NH4 + was transported into the mantle and used as a substrate for glutamine formation. Injection of NH4Cl into the extrapallial fluid led to an instantaneous increase in the total ammonia concentration therein, but the total ammonia concentration decreased subsequently and returned to the control value within 1 h. This is in support of the proposition that NH4 + could be transported from the extrapallial fluid to the mantle. Injection of HCl into the extrapallial fluid led to an instantaneous decrease in the pH of the extrapallial fluid. However, there was a significant increase in pH within 1 h in light or darkness, achieving a partial recovery toward the control pH value. The increase in pH within this 1-h period in light or darkness was accompanied by a significant decrease in the total ammonia concentration in the extrapallial fluid, which supports the proposition that H+ could be transported in combination with NH3 as NH4 +. Therefore, our results prompt a reexamination of the previous proposition that the removal of H+ by NH3 can facilitate calcification in molluscs in general and an investigation of the relationship between H+ removal through NH4 + transport and light-enhanced calcification in T. squamosa. © 2006 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology
URI: http://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/116434
ISSN: 15222152
DOI: 10.1086/501061
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