Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
|Title:||Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases|
|Authors:||Tang, F.R. |
World War I
|Citation:||Tang, F.R., Loke, W.K. (2012-09). Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 42 (8) : 688-702. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2012.698405|
|Abstract:||Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and IranIraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in IranIraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO-), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.|
|Source Title:||Critical Reviews in Toxicology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
Show full item record
Files in This Item:
There are no files associated with this item.
checked on Jun 16, 2018
WEB OF SCIENCETM
checked on May 8, 2018
checked on Jun 1, 2018
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.