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Title: Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases
Authors: Tang, F.R. 
Loke, W.K.
Keywords: Drug targets
IranIraq war
Molecular mechanism
Pulmonary diseases
Sulfur mustard
World War I
Issue Date: Sep-2012
Source: Tang, F.R., Loke, W.K. (2012-09). Sulfur mustard and respiratory diseases. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 42 (8) : 688-702. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Victims exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) in World War I and IranIraq war, and those suffered occupational or accidental exposure have endured discomfort in the respiratory system at early stages after exposure, and marked general physical deterioration at late stages due to pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans or lung cancer. At molecule levels, significant changes of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum, and of selectins (in particular sE-selectin) and soluble Fas ligand in the serum have been reported in recent studies of patients exposed to HD in IranIraq war, suggesting that these molecules may be associated with the pathophysiological development of pulmonary diseases. Experimental studies in rodents have revealed that reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, their product peroxynitrite (ONOO-), nitric oxide synthase, glutathione, poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase, activating protein-1 signaling pathway are promising drug targets for preventing HD-induced toxicity, whereas N-acetyl cysteine, tocopherols, melatonin, aprotinin and many other molecules have been proved to be effective in prevention of HD-induced damage to the respiratory system in different animal models. In this paper, we will systemically review clinical and pathophysiological changes of respiratory system in victims exposed to HD in the last century, update clinicians and researchers on the mechanism of HD-induced acute and chronic lung damages, and on the relevant drug targets for future development of antidotes for HD. Further research directions will also be proposed. © 2012 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.
Source Title: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
ISSN: 10408444
DOI: 10.3109/10408444.2012.698405
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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