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Title: What constitutes a normal seminal analysis? Semen parameters of 243 fertile men
Authors: Chia, S.-E. 
Tay, S.K.
Lim, S.T.
Keywords: Normal morphology
Semen parameters
WHO norm
Issue Date: 1998
Source: Chia, S.-E., Tay, S.K., Lim, S.T. (1998). What constitutes a normal seminal analysis? Semen parameters of 243 fertile men. Human Reproduction 13 (12) : 3394-3398. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the semen parameters (i.e. volume, concentration, motility, viability and normal morphology) of proven fertile males in Singapore and compare it with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended normal values and to examine some factors that may affect spermatogenesis. A total of 243 men, whose wives were pregnant at the time of collection of semen, provided a semen sample each after sexual abstinence for 3 days. A questionnaire was used to elicit occupational exposure, alcoholic consumption, smoking history and past significant medical history. Most subjects had normal sperm volume (56.4%), concentration (79.8%), motility (69.5%) and viability (53.5%) based on WHO criteria. However, fertile men had a low mean percentage of normal sperm morphology (20.0%), although they were normally distributed. Cigarette smoking was associated with significantly lower semen volumes even after adjusting for alcohol consumption. The sperm parameters (i.e. volume, density, motility, viability and normal morphology) were not significantly associated with ethnic differences. The WHO criterion for normal sperm morphology is too stringent, and should be adopted with caution. Normal sperm morphology is but one of many parameters for assessment of fertility. Social alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and 'recent fever' did not appear to affect sperm quality in this group of fertile men.
Source Title: Human Reproduction
ISSN: 02681161
DOI: humrep/13.12.3394
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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