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|Title:||The E6/E7 promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 is activated in the absence of E2 proteins by a sequence-aberrant Spl distal element|
|Authors:||Gloss, B. |
|Source:||Gloss, B.,Bernard, H.-U. (1990). The E6/E7 promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 is activated in the absence of E2 proteins by a sequence-aberrant Spl distal element. Journal of Virology 64 (11) : 5577-5584. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|Abstract:||The E6/E7 promoter of all genital human papillomaviruses is responsible for expression of the viral transforming genes. Centered 60 bp upstream of the transcription start, it contains a 20-bp segment with partially overlapping binding sites for the viral E2 proteins and for a cellular factor that was identified by footprint experiments. Bandshifts, bandshift competitions, and footprints revealed that protein complexes between nuclear extracts and these sequences have binding properties indistinguishable from those of the Sp1 factor that binds the simian virus 40 early promoter GC motif. Reactions of these complexes with anti-Sp1 antiserum were analyzed by superbandshifts and precipitation with protein A, and the results confirmed the identity of this transcription factor as Sp1. Sp1 binds in simian virus 40 and different human papillomavirus promoters the consensus sequence 5′-NGGNGN-3′. RNase protection analysis of in vitro or in vivo transcriptions with wild-type and mutant test vectors shows that the E6/E7 promoter of human papillomavirus type 16 is functionally dependent on the Sp1 distal promoter element. In all genital papillomaviruses, the Sp1 hexamer is invariably spaced by a single nucleotide from the distal E2 element, suggesting some precise interaction between Sp1 and E2 proteins. Published experimental evidence documents negative regulation of the E6/E7 promoter by E2 proteins through the proximal E2 element, whereas only minor quantitative differences in E6/E7 promoter function after cotransfection with E2 expression vectors were observed in this study. A detailed study of the interactions of Sp1 and E2 proteins with one another and with the corresponding three binding sites may reveal a complex modulation of this promoter.|
|Source Title:||Journal of Virology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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