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|Title:||DNA methyltransferases and TETs in the regulation of differentiation and invasiveness of extra-villous trophoblasts|
|Citation:||Logan, P.C.,Mitchell, M.D.,Lobie, P.E. (2013). DNA methyltransferases and TETs in the regulation of differentiation and invasiveness of extra-villous trophoblasts. Frontiers in Genetics 4 (DEC) : -. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2013.00265|
|Abstract:||Specialized cell types of trophoblast cells form the placenta in which each cell type has particular properties of proliferation and invasion. The placenta sustains the growth of the fetus throughout pregnancy and any aberrant trophoblast differentiation or invasion potentially affects the future health of the child and adult. Recently, the field of epigenetics has been applied to understand differentiation of trophoblast lineages and embryonic stem cells (ESC), from fertilization of the oocyte onward. Each trophoblast cell-type has a distinctive epigenetic profile and we will concentrate on the epigenetic mechanism of DNA methyltransferases and TETs that regulate DNA methylation. Environmental factors affecting the mother potentially regulate the DNA methyltransferases in trophoblasts, and so do steroid hormones, cell cycle regulators, such as p53, and cytokines, especially interlukin-1β. There are interesting questions of why trophoblast genomes are globally hypomethylated yet specific genes can be suppressed by hypermethylation (in general, tumor suppressor genes, such as E-cadherin) and how invasive cell-types are liable to have condensed chromatin, as in metastatic cancer cells. Future work will attempt to understand the interactive nature of all epigenetic mechanisms together and their effect on the complex biological system of trophoblast differentiation and invasion in normal as well as pathological conditions. © 2013 Logan, Mitchell and Lobie.|
|Source Title:||Frontiers in Genetics|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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