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Title: PIXE studies of emeralds
Authors: Yu, K.N.
Tang, S.M. 
Tay, T.S.
Issue Date: Jul-2000
Citation: Yu, K.N.,Tang, S.M.,Tay, T.S. (2000-07). PIXE studies of emeralds. X-Ray Spectrometry 29 (4) : 267-278. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A total of 56 natural emeralds and 26 synthetic emeralds were studied by PIXE. From the PIXE spectra and the concentrations of 33 elements, i.e. Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Co, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, La, Ce, Ga, P, S, Cl, As, Br, Mo, W, Pb, Bi, Pt, Au and Rh, obtained from the bulk analyses of inclusion-free regions of the stones, criteria for differentiating between natural and synthetic emeralds and among different localities of natural emeralds were deduced. The use of concentrations of only three chroniophoric elements, Cr, Fe and V, allowed us to attribute Pakistan emeralds, Chatham, Gilson, Taiwan and Lennix flux emeralds and a mixed group incorporating Russian flux and Russian hydrothermal emeralds. We then investigated all 32 elements (Rh was not detected in all the samples) through principal component analysis (PCA), which allowed us to specify whether an emerald was natural or synthetic in the first place and we were then successful in attributing the stone, as a second step, to four localities for natural stones, and to eight types for synthetic stones, one of which was a mixed group. The PCA of a reduced set of six elements, Cr, Fe, V, Mn, Ti and Cl, allowed us to attribute Pakistan emeralds, Taiwan flux emeralds, Biron hydrothermal emeralds and Biron hydrothermal emeralds measured at the boundary, and Lechleitner emeralds. This PCA together with the study of the correlation of the three chromophoric elements, Cr, Fe and V, allowed us to attribute Colombian and Pakistan emeralds and all synthetic emeralds, which was useful and convenient in real-life testing of unknown emeralds. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Source Title: X-Ray Spectrometry
ISSN: 00498246
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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