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Title: Nano-(Cd1/3Co1/3Zn1/3)CO3: A new and high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries
Authors: Sharma, Y.
Sharma, N. 
Rao, G.V.S.
Chowdari, B.V.R. 
Issue Date: 28-Jul-2009
Citation: Sharma, Y., Sharma, N., Rao, G.V.S., Chowdari, B.V.R. (2009-07-28). Nano-(Cd1/3Co1/3Zn1/3)CO3: A new and high capacity anode material for Li-ion batteries. Journal of Materials Chemistry 19 (28) : 5047-5054. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The Li-storage and cycling behavior of the mixed-metal carbonate, nano-(Cd1/3Co1/3Zn1/3)CO3 (CCZC) prepared under ambient conditions by the precipitation method are reported. A reversible capacity of 680 (±10) mAhg-1, corresponding to 3.5 moles of cyclable Li per mole of the CCZC (theor., 3.33 moles of Li) stable in the range 8-60 cycles is observed when cycled at 0.09 C in the range, 0.005-3.0 V vs. Li. The nano-CCZC also shows stable and reversible capacities at various C- rates up to 170 cycles. At 0.6 C, the observed capacity of 360 (±10) mAhg-1 is comparable to the theoretical capacity (372 mAhg -1) of the graphite used in the present-day Li- ion batteries. On the basis of galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry, ex situ-XRD, -TEM and -SAED studies, a reaction mechanism is proposed in which the CCZC is first reduced by Li to nano-metal (M = Cd, Co and Zn) particles embedded in amorphous Li 2CO3 and this is followed by the formation of alloys (Li-Zn and Li-Cd). Upon charging the electrode, the de-alloying reaction and metal carbonate (MCO3) formation occurs, thereby contributing to the reversible capacity. We have shown for the first time that the carbonate ion (CO3 2-) is as good as the oxide, fluoride or oxy-fluoride ion in enabling the reversible 'conversion' and alloying-de-alloying reactions involving both transition and non-transition metal ions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Source Title: Journal of Materials Chemistry
ISSN: 09599428
DOI: 10.1039/b906471k
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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