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Title: Li-storage and cycling properties of Sn-Sb-mixed oxides, (M 1/2Sb1/2Sn)O4, M = In, Fe
Authors: Reddy, M.V. 
Subba Rao, G.V. 
Chowdari, B.V.R. 
Keywords: (M1/2Sb1/2Sn)O4 (M = In, Fe)
Lithium-ion batteries
Issue Date: Jun-2013
Citation: Reddy, M.V., Subba Rao, G.V., Chowdari, B.V.R. (2013-06). Li-storage and cycling properties of Sn-Sb-mixed oxides, (M 1/2Sb1/2Sn)O4, M = In, Fe. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 17 (6) : 1765-1773. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The mixed oxide compounds, (M1/2Sb1/2Sn)O 4, M = In and Fe are prepared by the high-temperature solid-state reaction, at 800 C for M = In and at 1,150 C for M = Fe. High-energy ballmilling is used to reduce the particle size to nm-range. The compounds are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area methods. The Li-storage and cycling properties of the bare and ballmilled compounds are evaluated by galvanostatic cycling at ~0.15 C and in the voltage ranges 0.005-1.0 and 0.005-1.2 V vs. Li up to 50 (or 100) cycles and by cyclic voltammetry (CV) at room temperature. Effect of electrode heat treatment and carbon nanotube (CNT) addition is also studied. Initial reversible capacities in the range 425-550 mAh g-1 are observed depending on the metal (M) upper cut-off voltage, CNT content and electrode heat treatment. Ballmilled (In1/2Sb 1/2Sn)O4 showed a stable capacity of 445 mAh g -1 up to 30 cycles and 5 % capacity fading after 50 cycles. In all other cases, capacity fading is observed ranging from 9 to 60 %. The CV showed that the main cathodic and anodic peaks occur at 0.15-0.25 V and ~0.5 V vs. Li, respectively, for both M. The reaction mechanism involves alloying-de-alloying reactions of Sn and In with Li3Sb or Fe acting as conducting matrix, and corroborated by the ex-situ X-ray diffraction data on (In 1/2Sb1/2Sn)O4. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.
Source Title: Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry
ISSN: 14328488
DOI: 10.1007/s10008-012-1791-7
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