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Title: (Li, Al)-co-doped spinel, Li(Li0.1Al0.1Mn 1.8)O4 as high performance cathode for lithium ion batteries
Authors: Prabu, M.
Reddy, M.V. 
Selvasekarapandian, S.
Subba Rao, G.V. 
Chowdari, B.V.R. 
Keywords: (Li, Al)-co-doped LiMn2O4
Cathode material
Li-ion batteries
Issue Date: 15-Jan-2013
Citation: Prabu, M., Reddy, M.V., Selvasekarapandian, S., Subba Rao, G.V., Chowdari, B.V.R. (2013-01-15). (Li, Al)-co-doped spinel, Li(Li0.1Al0.1Mn 1.8)O4 as high performance cathode for lithium ion batteries. Electrochimica Acta 88 : 745-755. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: (Li, Al)-co-doped manganese oxide spinel compounds, Li(Li 0.1Al0.1Mn1.8)O4 are prepared at temperatures (T), 600, 650 and 750 °C by polymer precursor method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). The structure and morphology of the porous and sub-micron size particles of the compounds are characterized by the Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area techniques. Galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling in the voltage range of 3.5-4.3 V vs. Li at various current (C) rates, 0.5-3 C at 24 °C up to 60 cycles and at 0.5 C and at 55 °C up to 50 cycles is carried out. The influence of the Li-excess, the type of Al3+ dopant cation and the amount of fuel (polyvinyl pyrrolidone) used in the synthesis on the electrochemical behavior of the spinel in a Li-cell at room (24 °C) and at elevated temperature (55 °C) has been studied. Results show that at 24 °C and at 0.5 C, the phases prepared at 600 °C (I) and 650 °C (II) showed reversible capacities of 79 and 105 mAh g-1 and retained 99 (±1)% of the capacity after 50 cycles. At 1 C, 2 C and 3 C rates, II showed stable capacities of 97, 83 and 57 mAh g-1, respectively. At 55 °C and at 0.5 C, II showed a reversible capacity of 114 mAh g-1 and retains 92% of it at the end of 50 cycles, signifying the best cathodic performance for a doped-LiMn 2O4. Complementary cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectra and ex situ XRD data are described and discussed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Electrochimica Acta
ISSN: 00134686
DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2012.10.011
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