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Title: Soil lead and other metal levels in industrial, residential and nature reserve areas in Singapore
Authors: Zhou, C.Y.
Wong, M.K. 
Koh, L.L. 
Wee, Y.C. 
Issue Date: 1997
Citation: Zhou, C.Y., Wong, M.K., Koh, L.L., Wee, Y.C. (1997). Soil lead and other metal levels in industrial, residential and nature reserve areas in Singapore. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 44 (1-3) : 605-615. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The use of pressure feedback microwave digestion technique has permitted rapid and efficient digestion of soil and sediment samples. The evaluation of different acid mixtures to digest soil samples were studied by mixed-level orthogonal array design. The selected acid mixture of HCl-HNO3-HF was employed in the survey of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr and Mn in soil samples. Surface soil samples were collected from industrial, residential and nature reserve areas in Singapore. The five metal concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The lead and other metal contents in NBS SRM 1645, NIES CRM No. 2 and NRCC BCSS-1 sediment standard references were determined concurrently with the survey samples. Five measured metal loading on the surface soils was in the order: industrial area > residential area > nature reserve area. The trace metal concentrations in surface soil from areas of heavy traffic are higher than those from residential areas. The main sources of trace metal pollution are vehicular exhaust and industrial activities.
Source Title: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
ISSN: 01676369
DOI: 10.1023/A:1005712519751
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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