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Title: Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of carbamate pesticides in soil by experimental design methodology
Authors: Sun, L.
Lee, H.K. 
Keywords: Carbamates
Experimental design
Extraction methods
Microwave-assisted extraction
Orthogonal array design
Supercritical fluid extraction
Issue Date: 3-Oct-2003
Citation: Sun, L., Lee, H.K. (2003-10-03). Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of carbamate pesticides in soil by experimental design methodology. Journal of Chromatography A 1014 (1-2) : 165-177. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Orthogonal array design (OAD) was applied for the first time to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) conditions for the analysis of four carbamates (propoxur, propham, methiocarb, chlorpropham) from soil. The theory and methodology of a new OA16 (44) matrix derived from a OA16 (215) matrix were developed during the MAE optimization. An analysis of variance technique was employed as the data analysis strategy in this study. Determinations of analytes were completed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection. Four carbamates were successfully extracted from soil with recoveries ranging from 85 to 105% with good reproducibility (∼4.9% RSD) under the optimum MAE conditions: 30 ml methanol, 80°C extraction temperature, and 6-min microwave heating. An OA8 (27) matrix was employed for the SFE optimization. The average recoveries and RSD of the analytes from spiked soil by SFE were 92 and 5.5%, respectively except for propham (66.3±7.9%), under the following conditions: heating for 30 min at 60°C under supercritical CO2 at 300 kg/cm2 modified with 10% (v/v) methanol. The composition of the supercritical fluid was demonstrated to be a crucial factor in the extraction. The addition of a small volume (10%) of methanol to CO2 greatly enhanced the recoveries of carbamates. A comparison of MAE with SFE was also conducted. The results indicated that >85% average recoveries were obtained by both optimized extraction techniques, and slightly higher recoveries of three carbamates (propoxur, propham and methiocarb) were achieved using MAE. SFE showed slightly higher recovery for chlorpropham (93 vs. 87% for MAE). The effects of time-aged soil on the extraction of analytes were examined and the results obtained by both methods were also compared. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Journal of Chromatography A
ISSN: 00219673
DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00574-0
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