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Title: Determination of lead in blood by hydrodynamic voltammetry in a flow injection system with wall-jet detector
Authors: Jaenicke, S. 
Sabarathinam, R.M.
Fleet, B.
Gunasingham, H.
Keywords: Anodic stripping voltammetry
Blood analysis
Mercury film electrode
Wall-jet cell
Issue Date: Feb-1998
Citation: Jaenicke, S., Sabarathinam, R.M., Fleet, B., Gunasingham, H. (1998-02). Determination of lead in blood by hydrodynamic voltammetry in a flow injection system with wall-jet detector. Talanta 45 (4) : 703-711. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Lead is one of the most widely distributed toxic heavy metals in the environment. It is a cumulative poison, affecting the brain and nervous system. The threshold between the normal lead level and the level where physiological effects become manifest is relatively narrow. It is therefore desirable to screen exposed populations in order to identify the danger in time. The lead concentration in the blood is a measure to the total amount of lead in the body. A fast, accurate and cheap method for the determination of lead in blood is therefore needed. The conventional method used to determine lead in blood is atomic absorption. Electrochemical methods like stripping voltammetry combine high analytical sensitivity with relatively low cost for the equipment; however, electrode preparation is critical for the success of an analysis, and highly skilled personnel are needed. We describe an automated electrochemical method, using flow injection analysis with a wall-jet detector. Lead is released from its binding site in the blood by ion exchange and quantified by stripping voltammetry with a mercury film electrode (MFE). The method allows for the detection of 0.05 ppm Pb2+ with an accuracy of about 10% Electrode poisoning by proteins from the blood can be effectively suppressed when a MFE modified with a Nafion®-membrane coating is used. Such modified electrodes can be activated in the solution without further treatment, and used for more than 100 analyses before they have to be replaced. A solid matrix MFE with a Nation®-membrane and all necessary chemicals for mercury film formation and lead release has been developed. Such electrodes are discussed as disposable electrodes for a portable blood lead detector.
Source Title: Talanta
ISSN: 00399140
DOI: 10.1016/S0039-9140(97)00297-X
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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