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Title: Perturbation method for the second-Order nonlinear effect of focused acoustic field around a scatterer in an ideal fluid
Authors: Liu, G. 
Jayathilake, P.G. 
Khoo, B.C. 
Keywords: Mach number
Nonlinear acoustic wave
Perturbation method
Westervelt equation
Issue Date: Feb-2014
Citation: Liu, G., Jayathilake, P.G., Khoo, B.C. (2014-02). Perturbation method for the second-Order nonlinear effect of focused acoustic field around a scatterer in an ideal fluid. Ultrasonics 54 (2) : 576-585. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Two nonlinear models are proposed to investigate the focused acoustic waves that the nonlinear effects will be important inside the liquid around the scatterer. Firstly, the one dimensional solutions for the widely used Westervelt equation with different coordinates are obtained based on the perturbation method with the second order nonlinear terms. Then, by introducing the small parameter (Mach number), a dimensionless formulation and asymptotic perturbation expansion via the compressible potential flow theory is applied. This model permits the decoupling between the velocity potential and enthalpy to second order, with the first potential solutions satisfying the linear wave equation (Helmholtz equation), whereas the second order solutions are associated with the linear non-homogeneous equation. Based on the model, the local nonlinear effects of focused acoustic waves on certain volume are studied in which the findings may have important implications for bubble cavitation/initiation via focused ultrasound called HIFU (High Intensity Focused Ultrasound). The calculated results show that for the domain encompassing less than ten times the radius away from the center of the scatterer, the non-linear effect exerts a significant influence on the focused high intensity acoustic wave. Moreover, at the comparatively higher frequencies, for the model of spherical wave, a lower Mach number may result in stronger nonlinear effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Ultrasonics
ISSN: 0041624X
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2013.08.011
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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