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|dc.title||Performance of forward (direct) osmosis process: Membrane structure and transport phenomenon|
|dc.identifier.citation||Ng, H.Y., Tang, W., Wong, W.S. (2006-04-01). Performance of forward (direct) osmosis process: Membrane structure and transport phenomenon. Environmental Science and Technology 40 (7) : 2408-2413. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.|
|dc.description.abstract||The performance of a forward (direct) osmosis (FO) process was investigated using a laboratory-scale unit to elucidate the effect of membrane structure and orientation on water flux. Two types of RO membrane and a FO membrane were tested using ammonium bicarbonate, glucose, and fructose as the draw solution to extract water from a saline feed solution. The FO membrane was able to achieve higher water flux than the RO membranes under the same experimental conditions while maintaining high salt rejection of greater than 97%. Increasing operating temperature increased the water flux in FO process. To investigate the effect of membrane orientation on water flux, the FO membrane was tested normally (dense selective layer facing draw solution) and reversely (dense selective layer facing feed solution). Explanations on transport phenomenon in FO process were proposed which explain the observation that the FO membrane, when used in the normal orientation, performed better due to lesser internal concentration polarization. This study suggests that an ideal FO membrane should consist of a thin dense selective layer without any loose fabric support layer. © 2006 American Chemical Society.|
|dc.contributor.department||DIVISION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & ENGG|
|dc.description.sourcetitle||Environmental Science and Technology|
|Appears in Collections:||Staff Publications|
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