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Title: Collagen in human tissues: Structure, function, and biomedical implications from a tissue engineering perspective
Authors: Balasubramanian, P.
Prabhakaran, M.P. 
Sireesha, M.
Ramakrishna, S. 
Keywords: Cardiac
Collagen type I
Issue Date: 2013
Citation: Balasubramanian, P., Prabhakaran, M.P., Sireesha, M., Ramakrishna, S. (2013). Collagen in human tissues: Structure, function, and biomedical implications from a tissue engineering perspective. Advances in Polymer Science 251 : 173-206. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The extracellular matrix is a complex biological structure encoded with various proteins, among which the collagen family is the most significant and abundant of all, contributing 30-35% of the whole-body protein. "Collagen" is a generic term for proteins that forms a triple-helical structure with three polypeptide chains, and around 29 types of collagen have been identified up to now. Although most of the members of the collagen family form such supramolecular structures, extensive diversity exists between each type of collagen. The diversity is not only based on the molecular assembly and supramolecular structures of collagen types but is also observed within its tissue distribution, function, and pathology. Collagens possess complex hierarchical structures and are present in various forms such as collagen fibrils (1.5-3.5 nm wide), collagen fibers (50-70 nm wide), and collagen bundles (150-250 nm wide), with distinct properties characteristic of each tissue providing elasticity to skin, softness of the cartilage, stiffness of the bone and tendon, transparency of the cornea, opaqueness of the sclera, etc. There exists an exclusive relation between the structural features of collagen in human tissues (such as the collagen composition, collagen fibril length and diameter, collagen distribution, and collagen fiber orientation) and its tissue-specific mechanical properties. In bone, a transverse collagen fiber orientation prevails in regions of higher compressive stress whereas longitudinally oriented collagen fibers correlate to higher tensile stress. The immense versatility of collagen compels a thorough understanding of the collagen types and this review discusses the major types of collagen found in different human tissues, highlighting their tissue-specific uniqueness based on their structure and mechanical function. The changes in collagen during a specific tissue damage or injury are discussed further, focusing on the many tissue engineering applications for which collagen scaffolds are currently being applied. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.
Source Title: Advances in Polymer Science
ISBN: 9783642343292
ISSN: 00653195
DOI: 10.1007/12_2012_176
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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