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Title: A hermetic seal using composite thin-film In/Sn solder as an intermediate layer and its interdiffusion reaction with Cu
Authors: Yan, L.-L.
Lee, C.-K. 
Yu, D.-Q.
Yu, A.-B.
Choi, W.-K.
Lau, J.-H.
Yoon, S.-U.
Keywords: Copper
In/Sn solder
Interfacial reaction
Intermetallic compounds
Low-temperature bonding
Issue Date: Jan-2009
Citation: Yan, L.-L., Lee, C.-K., Yu, D.-Q., Yu, A.-B., Choi, W.-K., Lau, J.-H., Yoon, S.-U. (2009-01). A hermetic seal using composite thin-film In/Sn solder as an intermediate layer and its interdiffusion reaction with Cu. Journal of Electronic Materials 38 (1) : 200-207. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A bonding joint between Cu metallization and evaporated In/Sn composite solder is produced at a temperature lower than 200°C in air. The effects of bonding temperature and duration on the interfacial bonding strength are studied herein. Cross sections of bonding joints processed at different bonding conditions were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal condition, i.e., bonding temperature of 180°C for 20 min, was chosen because it gave rise to the highest average bonding strength of 6.5 MPa, and a uniform bonding interface with minimum voids or cracks. Good bond formation was also evidenced by scanning acoustic imaging. For bonding couples of patterned dies, a helium leak rate of 5.8 × 10 -9 atm cc/s was measured, indicating a hermetic seal. The interfacial reaction between Cu and In/Sn was also studied. Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) such as AuIn 2, Cu 6Sn 5, and Cu 11In 9 were detected by means of x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) accompanied by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Chemical composition analysis also revealed that solder interlayers, Sn, and In were completely converted into IMCs by reaction with Cu. All the IMCs formed in the joints have remelting temperatures above 300°C according to the Cu-In, Cu-Sn, and Au-In phase diagrams. Therefore, the joint is able to sustain high service temperatures due to the presence of these IMCs. © 2008 TMS.
Source Title: Journal of Electronic Materials
ISSN: 03615235
DOI: 10.1007/s11664-008-0561-x
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