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Title: Optimal orientation and tilt angle for maximizing in-plane solar irradiation for PV applications in Singapore
Authors: Khoo, Y.S.
Nobre, A.
Malhotra, R.
Yang, D.
Ruther, R.
Reindl, T.
Aberle, A.G. 
Keywords: Irradiation maximization
optimal tilt angle
PV modules
solar irradiance
Issue Date: Mar-2014
Citation: Khoo, Y.S., Nobre, A., Malhotra, R., Yang, D., Ruther, R., Reindl, T., Aberle, A.G. (2014-03). Optimal orientation and tilt angle for maximizing in-plane solar irradiation for PV applications in Singapore. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics 4 (2) : 647-653. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems is affected by the orientation and tilt angle, as these parameters determine the amount of solar radiation received by the surface of a PV module in a specific region. In this study, three sky models (Liu and Jordan, Klucher, and Perez et al.) are used to estimate the tilted irradiance, which would be received by a PV module at different orientations and tilt angles from the measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) in Singapore (1.37°N, 103.75°E). Modeled results are compared with measured values from irradiance sensors facing 60° NE, tilted at 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, and vertically tilted irradiance sensors facing north, south, east, and west in Singapore. Using the Perez model, it is found that a module facing east gives the maximum annual tilted irradiation for Singapore's climatic conditions. These findings are further validated by one-year comprehensive monitoring of four PV systems (tilted at 10° facing north, south, east, and west) deployed in Singapore. The PV system tilted 10° facing east demonstrated the highest specific yield, with the performance ratio close to those of other orientations. © 2013 IEEE.
Source Title: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics
ISSN: 21563381
DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2013.2292743
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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