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Title: Intermittent drying of bioproducts - An overview
Authors: Chua, K.J. 
Mujumdar, A.S. 
Chou, S.K. 
Keywords: Drying kinetics
Drying technologies
Product quality
Issue Date: Dec-2003
Citation: Chua, K.J., Mujumdar, A.S., Chou, S.K. (2003-12). Intermittent drying of bioproducts - An overview. Bioresource Technology 90 (3) : 285-295. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Unlike the conventional practice of supplying energy for batch drying processes at a constant rate, newly developed intermittent drying processes employ time-varying heat input tailored to match the drying kinetics of the material being dried. The energy required may be supplied by combining different modes of heat transfer (e.g. convection coupled with conduction or radiation or dielectric heating simultaneously or in a pre-selected sequence) in a time-varying fashion so as to provide optimal drying kinetics as well as quality of the bioproduct. This is especially important for drying of heat-sensitive materials (such as foods, pharmaceutical, neutraceutical substances, herbs, spices and herbal medicines). Intermittent heat supply is beneficial only for materials which dry primarily in the falling rate period where internal diffusion of heat and moisture controls the overall drying rate. Periods when little or no heat is supplied for drying allow the tempering period needed for the moisture and heat to diffuse within the material. As the moisture content increases at the surface of the biomaterial during the tempering period, the rate of drying is higher when heat input is resumed. It is possible to control the heat input such that the surface temperature of the product does not exceed a pre-determined value beyond which thermal damage of the material may occur. This process results in reduction in the use of thermal energy as well as the mass of air used in convective drying. Thus, the thermal efficiency of such a process is higher. The quality of the product, as such color and ascorbic acid content, is also typically superior to that obtained with a continuous supply of heat. However, in some cases, there will be a nominal increase in drying time. In the case of microwave-assisted and heat pump drying, for example, the capital cost of the drying system can also be reduced by drying in the intermittent mode. This paper provides an overview of the basic process, selected results from experiments and mathematical models for a variety of biomaterials dried in a wide assortment of dryers. It begins with a classification of intermittent drying processes that may be applied e.g. time-varying temperature, air flow rate, operating pressure as well as heat input by different modes and in different temporal variations. The beneficial effects of improving the quality of dried bioproducts by different intermittent processes are also included and discussed. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Bioresource Technology
ISSN: 09608524
DOI: 10.1016/S0960-8524(03)00133-0
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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