Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-007-0133-8
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dc.titleInaudible watermarking via phase manipulation of random frequencies
dc.contributor.authorLiew, P.Y.
dc.contributor.authorArmand, M.A.
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-17T02:53:03Z
dc.date.available2014-06-17T02:53:03Z
dc.date.issued2007-12
dc.identifier.citationLiew, P.Y., Armand, M.A. (2007-12). Inaudible watermarking via phase manipulation of random frequencies. Multimedia Tools and Applications 35 (3) : 357-377. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-007-0133-8
dc.identifier.issn13807501
dc.identifier.urihttp://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/56302
dc.description.abstractWatermarking technology can be beneficial in digital rights protection. However, the industry's acceptance of the technology has been lukewarm as experts have been able to hear audible artifacts introduced during the watermarking process. In this paper, we present what we believe to be a truly inaudible solution to this problem. Our proposed watermarking technique embeds the watermark signal in the phase of an audio signal, with secrecy as to which frequency components carry the watermark bits, achieved via a pseudorandom generator. Inaudibility is realized by exploiting the human auditory system's insensitivity to absolute phase. Further, our algorithm includes a novel mechanism for segmenting an audio signal into variable frame-lengths to provide robustness against de-synchronization attacks such as jitter and time-scaling. It uses a short-time Fourier transform to first characterize local changes in the frequency content of an audio signal, from which, pairs of frequencies satisfying specified conditions are identified, to mark the start and end of a segment. The insertion of synchronization marks adds further robustness against such attacks. Robustness against other common attacks may be further enhanced through the use of concatenated error-control codes which enable the correction of random and/or burst errors, which may be introduced during an attack. © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
dc.description.urihttp://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11042-007-0133-8
dc.sourceScopus
dc.subjectAudio watermarking
dc.subjectError-correcting codes
dc.subjectPhase coding
dc.subjectSynchronization
dc.typeArticle
dc.contributor.departmentELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING
dc.description.doi10.1007/s11042-007-0133-8
dc.description.sourcetitleMultimedia Tools and Applications
dc.description.volume35
dc.description.issue3
dc.description.page357-377
dc.description.codenMTAPF
dc.identifier.isiut000250766500006
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