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Title: Solubility, metastable zone width, and racemic characterization of propranolol hydrochloride
Authors: Wang, X. 
Wang, X.J. 
Ching, C.B. 
Keywords: Crystallization
Gibbs free energy
Metastable zone
Powder X-ray diffraction
Propranolol hydrochloride
Ternary solubility diagram
Issue Date: 2002
Citation: Wang, X., Wang, X.J., Ching, C.B. (2002). Solubility, metastable zone width, and racemic characterization of propranolol hydrochloride. Chirality 14 (4) : 318-324. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Characterization of the racemic species, which can be a racemic compound, a racemic conglomerate, or a pseudoracemate (solid solution), is a prerequisite for the design of crystallization resolution processes. It is useful to determine the solid/liquid equilibrium solubility of the enantiomer mixtures for crystallization operation. For the beta-blocker drug propranolol hydrochloride, Gibbs free energy of formation of racemic compound and entropy of mixing of the (R)- and (S)- enantiomers in the liquid state for racemic conglomerate were calculated. The structural differences between (R, S)-propranolol hydrochloride and its (S)-enantiomer were further investigated by powder X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, and solid-state NMR spectra. The solubility and metastable zone width of (R, S)- propranolol hydrochloride in a mixed solvent of methanol and acetone were determined by cooling crystallization over the temperature range 3.5-42.5°C. The ternary solubility diagram of (R)-, (S)propranolol hydrochloride was constructed using the same mixed solvent. The diagram will be useful as a guide for choosing crystallization operation conditions to produce pure enantiomers. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Source Title: Chirality
ISSN: 08990042
DOI: 10.1002/chir.10049
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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