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Title: Proactive and reactive helping: Contrasting the positive consequences of different forms of helping
Authors: Spitzmuller, M. 
Van Dyne, L.
Keywords: Helping
Positive consequences of helping
Issue Date: 2013
Citation: Spitzmuller, M., Van Dyne, L. (2013). Proactive and reactive helping: Contrasting the positive consequences of different forms of helping. Journal of Organizational Behavior 34 (4) : 560-580. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Research on helping has identified positive consequences of helping for the helper, beneficiary, group, and organization. Recent research, however, raises concerns about contingencies that influence the outcomes of helping and suggests the need for a more nuanced perspective on the positive outcomes of helping. In this paper, we develop a novel theoretical perspective to address these contingencies by differentiating between proactive helping and reactive helping. Drawing from the two main theoretical frameworks, which have been used as the basis for studying helping-social exchange theory and functional motives theory-we discuss differences in the positive consequences of reactive and proactive helping for helpers, dyads, groups, and organizations. We submit that reactive helping facilitates heedful relationships, such that it creates and perpetuates social exchange norms that benefit others in the group. Conversely, we posit that proactive helping is often based on fulfilling personal needs, such that it benefits the self in terms of reputational benefits, well-being, favorable self-evaluations, need satisfaction, and self-development. We discuss theoretical implications of this framework for future research on the positive consequences of helping. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Source Title: Journal of Organizational Behavior
ISSN: 08943796
DOI: 10.1002/job.1848
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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