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Title: Interleukin-6 production by bladder tumors is upregulated by BCG immunotherapy
Authors: Esuvaranathan, K. 
Alexandroff, A.B.
McIntyre, M.
Jackson, A.M.
Prescott, S.
Chisholm, G.D.
James, K.
Keywords: BCG vaccine
bladder neoplasms
interferon type II
Issue Date: 1995
Citation: Esuvaranathan, K., Alexandroff, A.B., McIntyre, M., Jackson, A.M., Prescott, S., Chisholm, G.D., James, K. (1995). Interleukin-6 production by bladder tumors is upregulated by BCG immunotherapy. Journal of Urology 154 (2 I) : 572-575. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Purpose: To determine whether BCG therapy could upregulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human transitional cell carcinomas (TCC). Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry of tumor biopsies and urinary cytospins and ELISA studies of urine from bladder cancer patients and TCC cell-line supernatants, before and after exposure to BCG, were performed. Results: Constitutive staining for IL-6 was found in the majority of bladder tumors. Interleukin-6 was detected in the urine of all 13 patients with carcinoma in situ and increased 5-fold during BCG therapy. Levels were variable but were greater in nonresponders (p <0.01). During therapy both detached bladder urothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes stained for IL-6. Production of IL-6 increased in only 3 cell lines after exposure to BCG, but all 7 cell lines showed increases after exposure to interferon-γ (p =0.015). Grade 3 cell lines showed much greater upregulation than grade 1 and 2 cell lines. Conclusions: The increase in IL-6 during BCG therapy may be caused by urothelial cells as well as leukocytes. The higher levels seen in nonresponders may be due to either higher grade or persisting tumor.
Source Title: Journal of Urology
ISSN: 00225347
DOI: 10.1016/S0022-5347(01)67113-1
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