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Title: APOE polymorphism and lipid profile in three ethnic groups in the Singapore population
Authors: Tan, C.E.
Tai, E.S.
Tan, C.S. 
Chia, K.S.
Lee, J.
Chew, S.K.
Ordovas, J.M.
Keywords: Apo E
Ethnic groups
Issue Date: 2003
Citation: Tan, C.E., Tai, E.S., Tan, C.S., Chia, K.S., Lee, J., Chew, S.K., Ordovas, J.M. (2003). APOE polymorphism and lipid profile in three ethnic groups in the Singapore population. Atherosclerosis 170 (2) : 253-260. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Serum lipid concentrations are modulated by environmental factors such as exercise, alcohol intake, smoking, obesity and dietary intake and genetic factors. Polymorphisms at the Apolipoprotein E (APOE) locus have consistently shown a significant association with total and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their impact on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) may be population dependent. Having three major ethnic groups within a similar social environment allows us to study the role of genetics and their interactions with lifestyle factors on the serum lipid profile and coronary risk in Asians. Methods: This study included 1740 males (1146 Chinese, 327 Malays and 267 Asian Indians) and 1950 females (1329 Chinese, 360 Malays and 261 Asian Indians) with complete data on anthropometric indices, fasting lipids, smoking status, alcohol consumption, exercise frequency and genotype at the APOE locus. Results: Malays and Asian Indians were more obese compared with the Chinese. Smoking was uncommon in all females but Malay males had significantly higher prevalence of smokers. Malays had the highest LDL-C whilst Indians had the lowest HDL-C, The ε3 allele was the most frequent allele in all three ethnic groups. Malays had the highest frequency of ε4 (0.180 and 0.152) compared with Chinese (0.085 and 0.087) and Indians (0.108 and 0.075) in males and females, respectively. The ε2 allele was the least common in Asian Indians. Total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was highest in ε4 carriers and lowest in ε2 carriers. The reverse was seen in HDL-C with the highest levels seen in ε2 subjects. The association between ethnic group and HDL-C differed according to APOE genotype and gender. Asian Indians had the lowest HDL-C for each APOE genotype except in Asian Indian males with ε2, where HDL-C concentrations were intermediate between Chinese and Malays. Conclusion: Ethnic differences in lipid profile could be explained in part by the higher prevalence of ε4 in the Malays. Ethnicity may influence the association between APOE genotypes and HDL-C. APOE genotype showed no correlation with HDL-C in Malay males whereas the association in Asian Indians was particularly marked. Further studies of interactions between genes and environmental factors will contribute to the understanding of differences of coronary risk amongst ethnic groups. © 2003 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Source Title: Atherosclerosis
ISSN: 00219150
DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9150(03)00232-6
Appears in Collections:Staff Publications

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