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Title: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are early indicators of an upcoming metabolic decline in Alzheimer’s disease
Authors: Ng, Kok Pin
Pascoal, Tharick A.
Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha
Chan, Yiong Huak 
Jiang, Lai
Therriault, Joseph
Benedet, Andrea L.
Shin, Monica
Kandiah, Nagaendran
Greenwood, Celia M. T.
Rosa-Neto, Pedro
Gauthier, Serge
Keywords: Dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease
Metabolic correlates
Neuropsychiatric symptoms
Issue Date: 4-Jan-2021
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd
Citation: Ng, Kok Pin, Pascoal, Tharick A., Mathotaarachchi, Sulantha, Chan, Yiong Huak, Jiang, Lai, Therriault, Joseph, Benedet, Andrea L., Shin, Monica, Kandiah, Nagaendran, Greenwood, Celia M. T., Rosa-Neto, Pedro, Gauthier, Serge (2021-01-04). Neuropsychiatric symptoms are early indicators of an upcoming metabolic decline in Alzheimer’s disease. Translational Neurodegeneration 10 (1) : 1. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are increasingly recognized as early non-cognitive manifestations in the Alzheimer’s disease (AD) continuum. However, the role of NPS as an early marker of pathophysiological progression in AD remains unclear. Dominantly inherited AD (DIAD) mutation carriers are young individuals who are destined to develop AD in future due to the full penetrance of the genetic mutation. Hence, the study of DIAD mutation carriers enables the evaluation of the associations between pure AD pathophysiology and metabolic correlates of NPS without the confounding effects of co-existing pathologies. In this longitudinal study, we aimed to identify regional brain metabolic dysfunctions associated with NPS in cognitively intact DIAD mutation carriers. Methods: We stratified 221 cognitively intact participants from the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer’s Network according to their mutation carrier status. The interactions of NPS measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire (NPI-Q), age, and estimated years to symptom onset (EYO) as a function of metabolism measured by [18F]flurodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography, were evaluated by the mixed-effects regression model with family-level random effects in DIAD mutation carriers and non-carriers. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify the neuropsychiatric subsyndromes in DIAD mutation carriers using the NPI-Q sub-components. Then the effects of interactions between specific neuropsychiatric subsyndromes and EYO on metabolism were evaluated with the mixed-effects regression model. Results: A total of 119 mutation carriers and 102 non-carriers were studied. The interaction of higher NPI-Q and shorter EYO was associated with more rapid declines of global and regional [18F]FDG uptake in the posterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortices, the bilateral parietal lobes and the right insula in DIAD mutation carriers. The neuropsychiatric subsyndromes of agitation, disinhibition, irritability and depression interacted with the EYO to drive the [18F]FDG uptake decline in the DIAD mutation carriers. The interaction of NPI and EYO was not associated with [18F]FDG uptake in DIAD mutation non-carriers. Conclusions: The NPS in cognitively intact DIAD mutation carriers may be a clinical indicator of subsequent metabolic decline in brain networks vulnerable to AD, which supports the emerging conceptual framework that NPS represent early manifestations of neuronal injury in AD. Further studies using different methodological approaches to identify NPS in preclinical AD are needed to validate our findings. © 2021, The Author(s).
Source Title: Translational Neurodegeneration
ISSN: 2047-9158
DOI: 10.1186/s40035-020-00225-y
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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