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Title: A systematic scoping review of approaches to teaching and assessing empathy in medicine
Authors: Zhou, Yi Cheng
Tan, Shien Ru
Tan, Chester Guan Hao
Ng, Matthew Song Peng
Lim, Kia Hui
Tan, Lorraine Hui En
Ong, Yun Ting
Cheong, Clarissa Wei Shuen
Chin, Annelissa Mien Chew 
Chiam, Min
Chia, Elisha Wan Ying
Lim, Crystal 
Wijaya, Limin 
Chowdhury, Anupama Roy
Kwek, Jin Wei 
Fong, Warren 
Somasundaram, Nagavalli 
Ong, Eng Koon 
Mason, Stephen
Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha 
Keywords: Empathy
Medical education
Medical schools
Nurturing empathy
Issue Date: 22-May-2021
Publisher: BioMed Central Ltd
Citation: Zhou, Yi Cheng, Tan, Shien Ru, Tan, Chester Guan Hao, Ng, Matthew Song Peng, Lim, Kia Hui, Tan, Lorraine Hui En, Ong, Yun Ting, Cheong, Clarissa Wei Shuen, Chin, Annelissa Mien Chew, Chiam, Min, Chia, Elisha Wan Ying, Lim, Crystal, Wijaya, Limin, Chowdhury, Anupama Roy, Kwek, Jin Wei, Fong, Warren, Somasundaram, Nagavalli, Ong, Eng Koon, Mason, Stephen, Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha (2021-05-22). A systematic scoping review of approaches to teaching and assessing empathy in medicine. BMC Medical Education 21 (1) : 292. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Background: Empathy is pivotal to effective clinical care. Yet, the art of nurturing and assessing empathy in medical schools is rarely consistent and poorly studied. To inform future design of programs aimed at nurturing empathy in medical students and doctors, a review is proposed. Methods: This systematic scoping review (SSR) employs a novel approach called the Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) to enhance the reproducibility and transparency of the process. This 6-stage SSR in SEBA involved three teams of independent researchers who reviewed eight bibliographic and grey literature databases and performed concurrent thematic and content analysis to evaluate the data. Results: In total, 24429 abstracts were identified, 1188 reviewed, and 136 included for analysis. Thematic and content analysis revealed five similar themes/categories. These comprised the 1) definition of empathy, 2) approaches to nurturing empathy, 3) methods to assessing empathy, 4) outcome measures, and 5) enablers/barriers to a successful curriculum. Conclusions: Nurturing empathy in medicine occurs in stages, thus underlining the need for it to be integrated into a formal program built around a spiralled curriculum. We forward a framework built upon these stages and focus attention on effective assessments at each stage of the program. Tellingly, there is also a clear need to consider the link between nurturing empathy and one’s professional identity formation. This foregrounds the need for more effective tools to assess empathy and to better understand their role in longitudinal and portfolio based learning programs. © 2021, The Author(s).
Source Title: BMC Medical Education
ISSN: 1472-6920
DOI: 10.1186/s12909-021-02697-6
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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