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dc.titleA systematic scoping review of approaches to teaching and assessing empathy in medicine
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Yi Cheng
dc.contributor.authorTan, Shien Ru
dc.contributor.authorTan, Chester Guan Hao
dc.contributor.authorNg, Matthew Song Peng
dc.contributor.authorLim, Kia Hui
dc.contributor.authorTan, Lorraine Hui En
dc.contributor.authorOng, Yun Ting
dc.contributor.authorCheong, Clarissa Wei Shuen
dc.contributor.authorChin, Annelissa Mien Chew
dc.contributor.authorChiam, Min
dc.contributor.authorChia, Elisha Wan Ying
dc.contributor.authorLim, Crystal
dc.contributor.authorWijaya, Limin
dc.contributor.authorChowdhury, Anupama Roy
dc.contributor.authorKwek, Jin Wei
dc.contributor.authorFong, Warren
dc.contributor.authorSomasundaram, Nagavalli
dc.contributor.authorOng, Eng Koon
dc.contributor.authorMason, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorKrishna, Lalit Kumar Radha
dc.identifier.citationZhou, Yi Cheng, Tan, Shien Ru, Tan, Chester Guan Hao, Ng, Matthew Song Peng, Lim, Kia Hui, Tan, Lorraine Hui En, Ong, Yun Ting, Cheong, Clarissa Wei Shuen, Chin, Annelissa Mien Chew, Chiam, Min, Chia, Elisha Wan Ying, Lim, Crystal, Wijaya, Limin, Chowdhury, Anupama Roy, Kwek, Jin Wei, Fong, Warren, Somasundaram, Nagavalli, Ong, Eng Koon, Mason, Stephen, Krishna, Lalit Kumar Radha (2021-05-22). A systematic scoping review of approaches to teaching and assessing empathy in medicine. BMC Medical Education 21 (1) : 292. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
dc.description.abstractBackground: Empathy is pivotal to effective clinical care. Yet, the art of nurturing and assessing empathy in medical schools is rarely consistent and poorly studied. To inform future design of programs aimed at nurturing empathy in medical students and doctors, a review is proposed. Methods: This systematic scoping review (SSR) employs a novel approach called the Systematic Evidence Based Approach (SEBA) to enhance the reproducibility and transparency of the process. This 6-stage SSR in SEBA involved three teams of independent researchers who reviewed eight bibliographic and grey literature databases and performed concurrent thematic and content analysis to evaluate the data. Results: In total, 24429 abstracts were identified, 1188 reviewed, and 136 included for analysis. Thematic and content analysis revealed five similar themes/categories. These comprised the 1) definition of empathy, 2) approaches to nurturing empathy, 3) methods to assessing empathy, 4) outcome measures, and 5) enablers/barriers to a successful curriculum. Conclusions: Nurturing empathy in medicine occurs in stages, thus underlining the need for it to be integrated into a formal program built around a spiralled curriculum. We forward a framework built upon these stages and focus attention on effective assessments at each stage of the program. Tellingly, there is also a clear need to consider the link between nurturing empathy and one’s professional identity formation. This foregrounds the need for more effective tools to assess empathy and to better understand their role in longitudinal and portfolio based learning programs. © 2021, The Author(s).
dc.publisherBioMed Central Ltd
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International
dc.sourceScopus OA2021
dc.subjectMedical education
dc.subjectMedical schools
dc.subjectNurturing empathy
dc.contributor.departmentNUS LIBRARIES
dc.contributor.departmentDEAN'S OFFICE (DUKE-NUS MEDICAL SCHOOL)
dc.contributor.departmentDUKE-NUS MEDICAL SCHOOL
dc.description.sourcetitleBMC Medical Education
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