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|Title:||Microparticle formulations alter the toxicity of fenofibrate to the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo||Authors:||Hering, Indra
Parnham, Michael J.
Heng, Paul W. S.
Wacker, Matthias G.
|Issue Date:||1-May-2021||Publisher:||Elsevier B.V.||Citation:||Hering, Indra, Eilebrecht, Elke, Parnham, Michael J., Weiler, Marc, Günday-Türeli, N., Türeli, A.E., Modh, Harshvardhan, Heng, Paul W. S., Böhmer, W., Schäfers, C., Fenske, Martina, Wacker, Matthias G. (2021-05-01). Microparticle formulations alter the toxicity of fenofibrate to the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo. Aquatic Toxicology 234 : 105798. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105798||Rights:||Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International||Abstract:||A wide variety of active pharmaceutical ingredients are released into the environment and pose a threat to aquatic organisms. Drug products using micro- and nanoparticle technology can lower these emissions into the environment by their increased bioavailability to the human patients. However, due to this enhanced efficacy, micro- and nanoscale drug delivery systems can potentially display an even higher toxicity, and thus also pose a risk to non-target organisms. Fenofibrate is a lipid-regulating agent and exhibits species-related hazards in fish. The ecotoxic effects of a fenofibrate formulation embedded into a hydroxypropyl methylcellulose microparticle matrix, as well as those of the excipients used in the formulation process, were evaluated. To compare the effects of fenofibrate without a formulation, fenofibrate was dispersed in diluted ISO water alone or dissolved in the solvent DMF and then added to diluted ISO water. The effects of these various treatments were assessed using the fish embryo toxicity test, acridine orange staining and gene expression analysis assessed by quantitative RT polymerase chain reaction. Exposure concentrations were assessed by chemical analysis. The effect threshold concentrations of fenofibrate microparticle precipitates were higher compared to the formulation. Fenofibrate dispersed in 20%-ISO-water displayed the lowest toxicity. For the fenofibrate formulation as well as for fenofibrate added as a DMF solution, greater ecotoxic effects were observed in the zebrafish embryos. The chemical analysis of the solutions revealed that more fenofibrate was present in the samples with the fenofibrate formulation as well as fenofibrate added as a DMF solution compared to fenofibrate dispersed in diluted ISO water. This could explain the higher ecotoxicity. The toxic effects on the zebrafish embryo thus suggested that the formulation as well as the solvent increased the bioavailability of fenofibrate. © 2021||Source Title:||Aquatic Toxicology||URI:||https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/232610||ISSN:||0166-445X||DOI:||10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105798||Rights:||Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International|
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