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Title: Transposable Element Dynamics and Regulation during Zygotic Genome Activation in Mammalian Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cell Model Systems
Authors: Low, Yixuan
Tan, Dennis Eng Kiat
Hu, Zhenhua
Tan, Shawn Ying Xuan
Tee, Wee-Wei 
Issue Date: 15-Oct-2021
Publisher: Hindawi Limited
Citation: Low, Yixuan, Tan, Dennis Eng Kiat, Hu, Zhenhua, Tan, Shawn Ying Xuan, Tee, Wee-Wei (2021-10-15). Transposable Element Dynamics and Regulation during Zygotic Genome Activation in Mammalian Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cell Model Systems. Stem Cells International 2021 : 1624669. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic sequences capable of duplicating and reintegrating at new regions within the genome. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that these elements play important roles in host genome evolution, despite being traditionally viewed as parasitic elements. To prevent ectopic activation of TE transposition and transcription, they are epigenetically silenced in most somatic tissues. Intriguingly, a specific class of TEs - retrotransposons - is transiently expressed at discrete phases during mammalian development and has been linked to the establishment of totipotency during zygotic genome activation (ZGA). While mechanisms controlling TE regulation in somatic tissues have been extensively studied, the significance underlying the unique transcriptional reactivation of retrotransposons during ZGA is only beginning to be uncovered. In this review, we summarize the expression dynamics of key retrotransposons during ZGA, focusing on findings from in vivo totipotent embryos and in vitro totipotent-like embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We then dissect the functions of retrotransposons and discuss how their transcriptional activities are finetuned during early stages of mammalian development. © 2021 Yixuan Low et al.
Source Title: Stem Cells International
ISSN: 1687-9678
DOI: 10.1155/2021/1624669
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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