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Title: From Micropores to Ultra-micropores inside Hard Carbon: Toward Enhanced Capacity in Room-/Low-Temperature Sodium-Ion Storage
Authors: Yang, Jinlin 
Wang, Xiaowei
Dai, Wenrui 
Lian, Xu 
Cui, Xinhang 
Zhang, Weichao
Zhang, Kexin
Lin, Ming
Zou, Ruqiang
Loh, Kian Ping 
Yang, Quan-Hong
Chen, Wei 
Keywords: Carbon anode
Extra sodium-ion storage sites
High areal capacity
Low-voltage capacity
Issue Date: 30-Mar-2021
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media B.V.
Citation: Yang, Jinlin, Wang, Xiaowei, Dai, Wenrui, Lian, Xu, Cui, Xinhang, Zhang, Weichao, Zhang, Kexin, Lin, Ming, Zou, Ruqiang, Loh, Kian Ping, Yang, Quan-Hong, Chen, Wei (2021-03-30). From Micropores to Ultra-micropores inside Hard Carbon: Toward Enhanced Capacity in Room-/Low-Temperature Sodium-Ion Storage. Nano-Micro Letters 13 (1) : 98. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Highlights: Hard-carbon anode dominated with ultra-micropores (< 0.5 nm) was synthesized for sodium-ion batteries via a molten diffusion–carbonization method.The ultra-micropores dominated carbon anode displays an enhanced capacity, which originates from the extra sodium-ion storage sites of the designed ultra-micropores.The thick electrode (~ 19 mg cm?2) with a high areal capacity of 6.14 mAh cm?2 displays an ultrahigh cycling stability and an outstanding low-temperature performance. Abstract: Pore structure of hard carbon has a fundamental influence on the electrochemical properties in sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). Ultra-micropores (< 0.5 nm) of hard carbon can function as ionic sieves to reduce the diffusion of slovated Na+ but allow the entrance of naked Na+ into the pores, which can reduce the interficial contact between the electrolyte and the inner pores without sacrificing the fast diffusion kinetics. Herein, a molten diffusion–carbonization method is proposed to transform the micropores (> 1 nm) inside carbon into ultra-micropores (< 0.5 nm). Consequently, the designed carbon anode displays an enhanced capacity of 346 mAh g?1 at 30 mA g?1 with a high ICE value of ~ 80.6% and most of the capacity (~ 90%) is below 1 V. Moreover, the high-loading electrode (~ 19 mg cm?2) exhibits a good temperature endurance with a high areal capacity of 6.14 mAh cm?2 at 25 °C and 5.32 mAh cm?2 at ? 20 °C. Based on the in situ X-ray diffraction and ex situ solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance results, the designed ultra-micropores provide the extra Na+ storage sites, which mainly contributes to the enhanced capacity. This proposed strategy shows a good potential for the development of high-performance SIBs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]. © 2021, The Author(s).
Source Title: Nano-Micro Letters
ISSN: 2311-6706
DOI: 10.1007/s40820-020-00587-y
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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