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Title: Van der Waals interaction affects wrinkle formation in two-dimensional materials
Authors: Ares, Pablo
Wang, Yi Bo
Woods, Colin R.
Dougherty, James
Fumagalli, Laura
Guinea, Francisco
Davidovitch, Benny
Novoselov, Kostya S. 
Keywords: Graphene
Van der Waals heterostructures
Issue Date: 31-Mar-2021
Publisher: National Academy of Sciences
Citation: Ares, Pablo, Wang, Yi Bo, Woods, Colin R., Dougherty, James, Fumagalli, Laura, Guinea, Francisco, Davidovitch, Benny, Novoselov, Kostya S. (2021-03-31). Van der Waals interaction affects wrinkle formation in two-dimensional materials. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 118 (14) : e2025870118. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
Abstract: Nonlinear mechanics of solids is an exciting field that encompasses both beautiful mathematics, such as the emergence of instabilities and the formation of complex patterns, as well as multiple applications. Two-dimensional crystals and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures allow revisiting this field on the atomic level, allowing much finer control over the parameters and offering atomistic interpretation of experimental observations. In this work, we consider the formation of instabilities consisting of radially oriented wrinkles around mono- and few-layer "bubbles" in two-dimensional vdW heterostructures. Interestingly, the shape and wavelength of the wrinkles depend not only on the thickness of the two-dimensional crystal forming the bubble, but also on the atomistic structure of the interface between the bubble and the substrate, which can be controlled by their relative orientation. We argue that the periodic nature of these patterns emanates from an energetic balance between the resistance of the top membrane to bending, which favors large wavelength of wrinkles, and the membrane-substrate vdW attraction, which favors small wrinkle amplitude. Employing the classical "Winkler foundation" model of elasticity theory, we show that the number of radial wrinkles conveys a valuable relationship between the bending rigidity of the top membrane and the strength of the vdW interaction. Armed with this relationship, we use our data to demonstrate a nontrivial dependence of the bending rigidity on the number of layers in the top membrane, which shows two different regimes driven by slippage between the layers, and a high sensitivity of the vdW force to the alignment between the substrate and the membrane. © 2021 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Source Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
ISSN: 0027-8424
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2025870118
Rights: Attribution 4.0 International
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