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Title: Assessing the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on the transmissibility and severity of COVID-19 during the first five months in the Western Pacific Region
Authors: Yeoh, Eng Kiong
Chong, Ka Chun
Chiew, Calvin J.
Lee, Vernon J. 
Ng, Chiu Wan
Hashimoto, Hideki
Kwon, Soonman
Wang, Weibing
Chau, Nancy Nam Sze
Yam, Carrie Ho Kwan
Chow, Tsz Yu
Hung, Chi Tim
Keywords: Case-fatality
Reproduction number
Western pacific
Issue Date: 1-Jun-2021
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Citation: Yeoh, Eng Kiong, Chong, Ka Chun, Chiew, Calvin J., Lee, Vernon J., Ng, Chiu Wan, Hashimoto, Hideki, Kwon, Soonman, Wang, Weibing, Chau, Nancy Nam Sze, Yam, Carrie Ho Kwan, Chow, Tsz Yu, Hung, Chi Tim (2021-06-01). Assessing the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions on the transmissibility and severity of COVID-19 during the first five months in the Western Pacific Region. One Health 12 : 100213. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Abstract: While most countries in the Western Pacific Region (WPR) had similar trajectories of COVID-19 from January to May, their implementations of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) differed by transmission stages. To offer a better understanding for an implementation of multidisciplinary policies in COVID-19 control, we compared the impact of NPIs by assessing the transmissibility and severity of COVID-19 in different phases of the epidemic during the first five months in WPR. In this study, we estimated the piecewise instantaneous reproduction number (Rt) and the reporting delay-adjusted case-fatality ratio (dCFR) of COVID-19 in seven WPR jurisdictions: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Japan, Malaysia, Shanghai, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. According to the results, implementing NPIs was associated with an apparent reduction of the piecewise Rt in two epidemic waves in general. However, large cluster outbreaks raised the piecewise Rt to a high level. We also observed relaxing the NPIs could result in an increase of Rt. The estimated dCFR ranged from 0.09% to 1.59% among the jurisdictions, except in Japan where an estimate of 5.31% might be due to low testing efforts. To conclude, in conjunction with border control measures to reduce influx of imported cases which might cause local outbreaks, other NPIs including social distancing measures along with case finding by rapid tests are also necessary to prevent potential large cluster outbreaks and transmissions from undetected cases. A comparatively lower CFR may reflect the health system capacity of these jurisdictions. In order to keep track of sustained disease transmission due to resumption of economic activities, a close monitoring of disease transmissibility is recommended in the relaxation phase. The report of transmission of SARS CoV-2 to pets in Hong Kong and to mink in farm outbreaks highlight for the control of COVID-19 and emerging infectious disease, the One Health approach is critical in understanding and accounting for how human, animals and environment health are intricately connected. © 2021 The Author(s)
Source Title: One Health
ISSN: 2352-7714
DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100213
Rights: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
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