Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000151
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dc.titleTransfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis
dc.contributor.authorPan, Steven C
dc.contributor.authorRickard, Timothy C
dc.date.accessioned2022-07-13T05:57:32Z
dc.date.available2022-07-13T05:57:32Z
dc.date.issued2018-07-01
dc.identifier.citationPan, Steven C, Rickard, Timothy C (2018-07-01). Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis. PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 144 (7) : 710-756. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000151
dc.identifier.issn00332909
dc.identifier.issn19391455
dc.identifier.urihttps://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/228385
dc.description.abstractAttempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive metaanalytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research. A random-effects model revealed that testing can yield transferrable learning as measured relative to a nontesting reexposure control condition (d = 0.40, 95% CI [0.31, 0.50]). That transfer of learning is greatest across test formats, to application and inference questions, to problems involving medical diagnoses, and to mediator and related word cues; it is weakest to rearranged stimulus-response items, to untested materials seen during initial study, and to problems involving worked examples. Moderator analyses further indicated that response congruency and elaborated retrieval practice, as well as initial test performance, strongly influence the likelihood of positive transfer. In two assessments for publication bias using PET-PEESE and various selection methods, the moderator effect sizes were minimally affected. However, the intercept predictions were substantially reduced, often indicating no positive transfer when none of the aforementioned moderators are present. Overall, our results motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherAMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC
dc.sourceElements
dc.subjectSocial Sciences
dc.subjectPsychology
dc.subjectPsychology, Multidisciplinary
dc.subjectmeta-analysis
dc.subjectretrieval practice
dc.subjecttest-enhanced learning
dc.subjecttesting effect
dc.subjecttransfer
dc.subjectRETRIEVAL-INDUCED FACILITATION
dc.subjectROBUST VARIANCE-ESTIMATION
dc.subjectMULTIPLE-CHOICE TESTS
dc.subjectEFFECT SIZE
dc.subjectMETA-REGRESSION
dc.subjectSHORT-ANSWER
dc.subjectMEMORY
dc.subjectRETENTION
dc.subjectBENEFITS
dc.subjectFEEDBACK
dc.typeReview
dc.date.updated2022-07-11T07:23:42Z
dc.contributor.departmentDEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY
dc.description.doi10.1037/bul0000151
dc.description.sourcetitlePSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
dc.description.volume144
dc.description.issue7
dc.description.page710-756
dc.published.statePublished
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