Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000151
Title: Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis
Authors: Pan, Steven C 
Rickard, Timothy C
Keywords: Social Sciences
Psychology
Psychology, Multidisciplinary
meta-analysis
retrieval practice
test-enhanced learning
testing effect
transfer
RETRIEVAL-INDUCED FACILITATION
ROBUST VARIANCE-ESTIMATION
MULTIPLE-CHOICE TESTS
EFFECT SIZE
META-REGRESSION
SHORT-ANSWER
MEMORY
RETENTION
BENEFITS
FEEDBACK
Issue Date: 1-Jul-2018
Publisher: AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC
Citation: Pan, Steven C, Rickard, Timothy C (2018-07-01). Transfer of Test-Enhanced Learning: Meta-Analytic Review and Synthesis. PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN 144 (7) : 710-756. ScholarBank@NUS Repository. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000151
Abstract: Attempting recall of information from memory, as occurs when taking a practice test, is one of the most potent training techniques known to learning science. However, does testing yield learning that transfers to different contexts? In the present article, we report the findings of the first comprehensive metaanalytic review into that question. Our review encompassed 192 transfer effect sizes extracted from 122 experiments and 67 published and unpublished articles (N = 10,382) that together comprise more than 40 years of research. A random-effects model revealed that testing can yield transferrable learning as measured relative to a nontesting reexposure control condition (d = 0.40, 95% CI [0.31, 0.50]). That transfer of learning is greatest across test formats, to application and inference questions, to problems involving medical diagnoses, and to mediator and related word cues; it is weakest to rearranged stimulus-response items, to untested materials seen during initial study, and to problems involving worked examples. Moderator analyses further indicated that response congruency and elaborated retrieval practice, as well as initial test performance, strongly influence the likelihood of positive transfer. In two assessments for publication bias using PET-PEESE and various selection methods, the moderator effect sizes were minimally affected. However, the intercept predictions were substantially reduced, often indicating no positive transfer when none of the aforementioned moderators are present. Overall, our results motivate a three-factor framework for transfer of test-enhanced learning and have practical implications for the effective use of practice testing in educational and other training contexts.
Source Title: PSYCHOLOGICAL BULLETIN
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/228385
ISSN: 00332909
19391455
DOI: 10.1037/bul0000151
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