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Title: Co-design of a digital dietary intervention for adults at risk of type 2 diabetes
Authors: Tay, BSJ
Edney, SM 
Brinkworth, GD
Cox, DN
Wiggins, B
Davis, A
Gwilt, I
Haveman-Nies, A
Ryan, JC
Keywords: Co-design
Digital dietary intervention
Health behaviour
Participatory research
Type 2 diabetes
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Health Behavior
Health Promotion
Middle Aged
Persuasive Communication
Social Support
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2021
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Citation: Tay, BSJ, Edney, SM, Brinkworth, GD, Cox, DN, Wiggins, B, Davis, A, Gwilt, I, Haveman-Nies, A, Ryan, JC (2021-12-01). Co-design of a digital dietary intervention for adults at risk of type 2 diabetes. BMC Public Health 21 (1) : 2071-. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Background: Co-design has the potential to create interventions that lead to sustainable health behaviour change. Evidence suggests application of co-design in various health domains has been growing; however, few public-facing digital interventions have been co-designed to specifically address the needs of adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study aims to: (1) co-design, with key stakeholders, a digital dietary intervention to promote health behaviour change among adults at risk of T2D, and (2) evaluate the co-design process involved in developing the intervention prototype. Methods: The co-design study was based on a partnership between nutrition researchers and designers experienced in co-design for health. Potential end-users (patients and health professionals) were recruited from an earlier stage of the study. Three online workshops were conducted to develop and review prototypes of an app for people at risk of T2D. Themes were inductively defined and aligned with persuasive design (PD) principles used to inform ideal app features and characteristics. Results: Participants were predominantly female (range 58–100%), aged 38 to 63 years (median age = 59 years), consisting of a total of 20 end-users and four experts. Participants expressed the need for information from credible sources and to provide effective strategies to overcome social and environmental influences on eating behaviours. Preferred app features included tailoring to the individual’s unique characteristics, ability to track and monitor dietary behaviour, and tools to facilitate controlled social connectivity. Relevant persuasive design principles included social support, reduction (reducing effort needed to reach target behaviour), tunnelling (guiding users through a process that leads to target behaviour), praise, rewards, and self-monitoring. The most preferred prototype was the Choices concept, which focusses on the users’ journey of health behaviour change and recognises progress, successes, and failures in a supportive and encouraging manner. The workshops were rated successful, and feedback was positive. Conclusions: The study’s co-design methods were successful in developing a functionally appealing and relevant digital health promotion intervention. Continuous engagement with stakeholders such as designers and end-users is needed to further develop a working prototype for testing.
Source Title: BMC Public Health
ISSN: 14712458
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-12102-y
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