Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/223182
Title: THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EVACUATION UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS
Authors: SEAH KAI WEI
Keywords: Building
Project and Facilities Management
Chew Yit Lin Michael
2011/2012 PFM
Cone calorimeter
Fire smoke
Pathfinder
Primary school building
PyroSim
Total evacuation time
Toxicity
Woods
Issue Date: 5-Jan-2012
Citation: SEAH KAI WEI (2012-01-05). THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EVACUATION UNDER FIRE CONDITIONS. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: The study of the influential of smoke to total evacuation time is crucial in ensuring optimum fire safety for the occupants. Fire smoke and toxicity have been ranked the topmost causes in fire fatalities, which contribute up to 80% of the victims. As fire generates smoke and poisonous gases, it affects the evacuation process, leading to disorientation, lung burnt, suffocation, visual obscuration and deterioration of health. The impediment of safe evacuation delays evacuation processes as the movement speed decreases. Hence, the consideration of evacuation time without taking account in the smoke would bring errors to the end results. With this, the author seeks to prove the significance of identifying the influences of fire smoke to the total evacuation time. A case study and simulation modelling of a hypothetical primary school building have been conducted, where lab experiment using Cone Calorimeter provides the basis for data collection. Additionally, the characteristics of occupants’ evacuation and smoke hazards have been observed through Pathfinder and PyroSim simulations respectively. From here, differences in the total evacuation time and fatality rate in a smoke and non-smoke setting were addressed. The characteristics of fire, human behaviours and fire safety were discussed in the literature review, which provides fundamental knowledge in fire smoke and evacuation processes. Six common types of woods (Ash, Beech, Cherry, Maple, Oak and Pine) have been identified, where their thermal properties were obtained through the adoption of Cone Calorimeter. This includes density, heat release rate, ignition temperature and carbon monoxide concentration. Peak values of data have been input into the model so as to portray the worst case scenario, as shown in Table 4.4. The hypothetical school building comprises common facilities including general office, classrooms, laboratories, library, art & craft rooms, music room and toilets. Smoke and non-smoke settings have been simulated, where parameters including visual obscuration and carbon monoxide toxicants were evaluated in the three scenarios of the smoke environment in which fire ignites at different storey. The comparison results in both settings have concluded that total evacuation time in a smoke environment increases due to inaccessibility of escape points and route changes. Evacuation in a non-smoke situation completes within 260 seconds, while scenario TWO and THREE take 347 seconds and 282 seconds, indicating an increase of 33.46% and 8.46% respectively. In the case of first scenario, a fatality rate of 25.57% has been accounted after 232 seconds when all the critical escape points have been compromised, which indicates the worst case setting. The findings have concluded and justified that influences of fire smoke leads to an increase of total evacuation time and hence, significantly provides optimum fire safety to individuals.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/223182
Appears in Collections:Bachelor's Theses

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