Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/222637
Title: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN ASEAN: AN ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL HAZE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES THE �ASEAN WAY �
Authors: NG WEISHENG IVAN
Keywords: Environmental Management
Master (Environmental Management)
MEM
Study Report (MEM)
Lye Lin Heng
2013/2014 EnvM
Indonesian Haze
Issue Date: 16-Jul-2014
Citation: NG WEISHENG IVAN (2014-07-16). ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN ASEAN: AN ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL HAZE MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES THE �ASEAN WAY �. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Transboundary air pollution, also known as the ‘haze’ in Southeast Asia has been a recurring issue in the region for the past two decades. Haze mainly originates from Riau and Sumatra in Indonesia where palm oil corporations and small land holders use the ‘slash and burn’ method to clear forests. Much of the air pollution and smoke particles emitted are carried by wind to the neighbouring ASEAN states of Singapore and Malaysia. ASEAN has tried to address the haze issue since the 1990s using soft laws such as The Kuala Lumpur Accord on Environment and Development in 1990, Singapore Resolution on Environment and Development in 1992, ASEAN Cooperation Plan on Transboundary Pollution in 1995, Regional Haze Action Plan in 1997 and hard laws such as The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution in 2002. Despite ASEAN’s success in developing laws to resolve the haze issue, the haze has continued to occur regularly with the most recent haze events in June 2013 and March 2014. The ‘ASEAN Way’ is an important feature of regional cooperation in SEA and is based on the principles of decision making by consensus and non-interference in ASEAN member states’ domestic affairs. Scholars have suggested that the ‘ASEAN Way’ has impeded environmental cooperation among member states which has led to the poor execution of haze prevention in Indonesia. Part of this study report will analyse the case study of the June 2013 Indonesian haze. This haze event was significant because of the high PSI (Pollutants Standards Index) levels which entered the hazardous range of beyond 301 and eventually exceeded the 400 mark. The PSI used in Singapore is an index developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and is based on the measurement of five pollutants: carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and PM10. However, Singapore has added in PM2.5 readings since 2014. Furthermore, Indonesia’s President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono acknowledged the impact of the forest fires that originated from Indonesia and apologised to Singapore and Malaysia for not being able to prevent them from occurring. This study report will address haze management and mitigation strategies in the ASEAN context by examining the relevant soft and hard laws. The author argues that the ‘ASEAN Way’ is still relevant and has facilitated environmental cooperation in the form of bilateral cooperation. For example, the 2007 Jambi Master Plan can be considered to be a relatively successful collaboration between Singapore and the Indonesian authorities as it fostered greater cooperation and led to capacity building among the Indonesian stakeholders. The ‘ASEAN Way’ is unique to ASEAN and serves its purpose in maintaining cordial relations between member states. Thus, it can still be relevant to ASEAN in resolving the haze.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/222637
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