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Keywords: Environmental Management
Master (Environmental Management)
Cecilia Lim
2015/2016 EnvM
Issue Date: 13-Jul-2016
Abstract: Before the large-scale development of the Earth by humans, or humans’ damage to the environment, the natural environment, itself, is harmonious and sustainable. Who have made the damage to environment? Human beings. The nature loop itself does not have "trash", since all of the elements involved in the cycle can maintain balance. Human be- ings’ activities break up this natural balance and lead to a lot of conflicts between environ- ment and mankind. Thus, environmental management is put forward. Note that environ- mental management is aiming at manage humans’ activities rather than “environment”, a tree or a piece of land. In that way, we need to understand what are the main human activ- ities related to environment and what are the main motivations of these activities. There are numerous human activities in the world, but the main categories relating to envi- ronment are as following: economic activity, living facilities construction, commercial activi- ties, transportation, recreational activities and so forth. And these activities are guided by some of the dominant values: development, economy growth, better life, enjoyment of life, etc., while these dominant values are worldwide general, which lead to the imbalances be- tween human request and environment assimilative capacity, causing environment degra- dation. Along with the increasing of the conflict level, environmental issues have become world common topics. To solve these problems, sustainable development is put forward. Then, in terms of these dominant values and sustainable development, what are the hid- den motivation of them and how could we reach sustainability. All of these questions in- volve a fundamental problem: what is the relationship between human beings and envi- ronment on earth, and what the relationship should be. Obviously, the environmental issues ultimately come down to the philosophy and ethics issues. The relationship between man and nature determines the roles of both and the atti- tude that we treat environment, and further affect the purpose and manner of human activi- ty. Actually, there are already some environmental philosophical and ethical studies and theories both in western and eastern views, and some of these studies and theories have affected our policies and decision-making related to environment at a certain level. In this paper, we will discuss about some important philosophy theories in both western and eastern fields. In western philosophy, the main environmental theories include Anthro- pocentrism (Teleology, Utilitarianism, Deontology), Animal Liberation Theory and Biocen- trism; in oriental philosophy, the main environmental theories embody Chinese Taoist Envi- 3 ronmental Philosophy and Confucian Ecological Philosophy. Of course there are also many other environmental theories, but these are the ones can represent the main ideolo- gy for both western and eastern and have profound impacts of environmental manage- ment theory and practice development. This paper also talks about some main environ- mental issues, including economic growth and environment, Long term interest and short term interest, Biodiversity conservation, Science and environment — Modern technology ethics, Environment valuation and Sustainability. Finally, the paper, after a series of analy- sis, gives a suggestion about environmental management in theory level — self-manage- ment and the reasons and supporting of this suggestion.
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