Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220265
Title: A RESEARCH ON THE MOST ADEQUATE EVACUATION TIME REQUIRED FOR MIX DEVELOPMENT (INDUSTRIAL/ OFFICE)
Authors: CHUA WEI FANG
Keywords: Building
PFM
Project and Facilities Management
Chew Yit Lin Michael
2013/2014 PFM
Carbon Monoxide Concentration
Evacuation Time
Fire
Fire Dynamics Simulator and Smokeview (FDS-SMV)
Light industrial cum office buildings
Pathfinder
Response time
Visibility Level
Issue Date: 16-Jan-2014
Citation: CHUA WEI FANG (2014-01-16). A RESEARCH ON THE MOST ADEQUATE EVACUATION TIME REQUIRED FOR MIX DEVELOPMENT (INDUSTRIAL/ OFFICE). ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: A research study conducted to find out the adequate evacuation time for buildings is essential as this evacuation time would serve as a safety benchmark in which the Fire Safety Committee of the building needs to achieve. The benchmarked time serves to assist the Fire Safety Committee to gauge the performance of their fire drill exercises. If the evacuation timing achieved in a fire drill exercise does not meet the benchmarked time, it is important for the Fire Safety Committee to develop a contingency plan to train their occupants to evacuate faster from the building while in an orderly manner. By ensuring that the occupants are able to safely evacuate from the building within the benchmarked time, it would mean that fatalities and injuries resulted from fire accidents can be prevented. Hence, in light of this, the author seeks to investigate on the most adequate evacuation time, particularly for light industrial cum office buildings due to their increasing popularity in the industrial market and their proximity to neighborhood areas, through the adoption of fire simulation software. Prior to the conduct of simulations, a literature review was conducted. The literature review discusses the characteristics, various ways of heat transfer and the different stages of fire. The literature review also discusses the dangers of smoke produced by fire as well as the investigation on human reactions during a fire situation. In the literature review, it was shown that when human are exposed to a high concentration of carbon monoxide, it can lead to headaches and dizziness or even death within a short period of time. In addition, occupants take time to respond before they conduct evacuation process and the time varies when they are situated at different locations. For example, when occupants are in offices, they take one to six minutes to prepare themselves before they start to evacuate while the occupants situated in residential buildings take one to more than twenty minutes. This research study utilized Fire Dynamics Simulator and Smokeview (FDS-SMV) software and Pathfinder software to simulate a worst case fire scenario in a typical light industrial cum office building and the evacuation process of the occupants. In the simulation, fire sprinklers and smoke detectors in the building were omitted. The level of visibility and the amount of carbon monoxide concentration present in the building are the two key parameters to determine if the environment inside the building is optimal for the occupants to evacuate safely. Hence, simulation data were collected at various simulation times of 5, 60, 100.8, 132, and after 132 seconds after the fire starts to measure the level of visibility and the amount of carbon monoxide concentration in the building. In addition, the response times of the occupants were factored in to increase the reliability and accuracy of the results. One major finding from the simulation is that at the time interval of 2 minutes 12 seconds, the environment inside the building have reached a dangerous level and was unfit for occupants to move around within the building. The visibility level of the storey under fire was very low and the carbon monoxide concentration was at a dangerous level of 3,218.3002 ppm. The low visibility will not allow occupants to have clear vision while the high amount of the carbon monoxide content can result in headache and dizziness within 5-10 minutes of exposure. Another major finding from the simulation is that the number of fatalities was at its lowest when the occupants in the building are able to evacuate from the building within 4 minutes and 30 seconds at a speed of 1.19 m/s. Hence, the findings have concluded that the most adequate evacuation time for the occupants in the affected storey should be before 2 minutes 12 seconds and all the occupants should be evacuated from the building within 4 minutes 30 seconds.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220265
Appears in Collections:Bachelor's Theses

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