Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220134
Title: DIFFERENTIATED SPACE: EVOLUTIONARY EXPLORATION OF SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
Authors: ZHANG RUI
Keywords: Architecture
Design Technology and Sustainability
DTS
Master (Architecture)
Patrick Janssen
2013/2014 Aki DTS
Evaluation criteria
Evolutionary algorithm
Optimization
Plot ratio
Residential building
Spatial configuration
Daylight
Issue Date: 21-Nov-2013
Citation: ZHANG RUI (2013-11-21). DIFFERENTIATED SPACE: EVOLUTIONARY EXPLORATION OF SPATIAL CONFIGURATIONS FOR HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: This study attempts to test the feasibility of Evolutionary Algorithm as a design tool for exploring spatial configurations for residential buildings. The aim is to generate configurations where the individual flats and the communal spaces in the building are highly differentiated in terms of their spatial form. The context of this research is Singapore, and the residential buildings are proposed as social housing for Singapore’s Housing and Development Board. When generating these configurations, two key performance criteria considered are the plot ratio of the overall building and the daylight level inside the flats. Due to the complexity of this task, this research proposes to use Evolutionary Algorithms as a tool for design exploration. The differentiated spatial configurations give each flat and each communal space a distinct identity. The premise is that there is no such thing as a ‘standard’ family, and therefore flats should also not be standardised. The unique three-dimensional volumetric configuration creates a vibrant character for each flat unit, thereby giving the residences a sense of uniqueness. Within these spaces, each family could then develop their own innovative ways of inhabiting the space, by customizing the spatial subdivisions. The spatial volume of a building is usually determined by various parameters which include plot ratio, heights, orientation and planning profile. Traditionally, residential buildings used repetitive floor plans, which is easy for designers to explore above parameters meanwhile take other performance criteria into consideration. However, if differentiated spatial configurations are desired, then repetitive floor plans cannot be used, thereby making the task for the designer significantly more complex. In order to handle this complex design task, this research proposes to use evolutionary algorithm, which will allow these parameters to be explored in an automated way, taking into account certain evaluation criteria. In the demonstration, residential blocks are defined as three-dimensional masses, 20m x 80m, and 10 storeys high. These blocks are then split into a cellular grid, with each cell measuring each 4m x 4m x 3m. Flats are then defined as aggregations of such cells. The plot ratio and daylight levels have been taken as key evaluation criteria in the process of optimization. These two evaluation criteria are conflicting in nature, interdependent on each other in opposite directions. In order to enable light to penetrate deeper into the blocks, voids are inserted into the massing of the buildings. These voids also create common areas shared by the neighbouring flats, thereby encouraging small communities within the building to form. The evolved buildings combine a high plot ratio with good daylight availability. The developmental procedure results in flats with complex spatial configurations that allow for new modes of habitation for families in Singapore. Residents are able to select spatial configurations that suit their lifestyles and family sizes. With the particular exploration on the spatial volume and form of the flat units, this strategy can be applied for creating a quality living environment and vibrant living.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/220134
Appears in Collections:Master's Theses (Restricted)

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