Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/219961
Title: QUANTIFYING METAL BIOAVAILABILITY AT HUMAN IMPACTED MANGROVES
Authors: LOW KOK LEONG
Keywords: 2019-2020
Dean's Office (Environmental Management)
Master's
MASTER OF SCIENCE (ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT)
MEM
Chua Siew Chin
Issue Date: 8-Jun-2021
Citation: LOW KOK LEONG (2021-06-08). QUANTIFYING METAL BIOAVAILABILITY AT HUMAN IMPACTED MANGROVES. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: More than 70% of Earth is covered with water and only in recent decades, have we begun to realize how human affects the oceans, seas and the coastlines. Marine pollution is caused by human-created products that enter into the water environment. Marine pollution is a combination of chemicals and physical trash, most of which comes from land sources and is transported from waterways to coastlines, seas and oceans. This pollution results in damage to the environment, to the health of all organisms (including human) and to the economic structures worldwide. 275 million metric tons (MT) of plastic waste was generated by 192 coastal countries in 2010, with 4.8 to 12.7 million MT entering the ocean(Jambeck et al. 2015); heavy metal pollution has a combined worldwide economic impact estimated to be excess of US $10 billion and the impacts can continue for more than 2,000 years (Taylor 2012); marine litter that lead to reduction of catch for the EU fishing fleet totaled to USD 81.7 per year (Arcadis 2014.) Trace metals in coastal waters is one kind of chemical contamination found in the marine environment. This type of pollution occurs from anthropogenic activities such as domestic and agricultural use of metals and metal-containing compounds, industrial production and use, shipyards and port activities (Nriagu 1996). These pollutants can be in dissolved or particulate form in the environment, depending on the chemical form. and the environmental conditions of the sources and the particular environment. The metal that is in particulate form is generally thought not to have much interaction with biological agents, and is frequently adsorbed onto mineral phases as sediments or rocks. Sediments generally accumulate in situ, and can be transported away by physical processes including tides or storms (Bruland and Lohan, 2003 book). In contrast, the dissolved metal forms can be bioaccumulated and biomagnified into organisms, depending on their chemical composition. The dissolved metal can be either in organic or inorganic form. The inorganic forms are generally considered to be the bio-available forms, that is, the forms that can be taken-up by plants or animals, and which can have deleterious effects to the natural ecosystems, and eventually harmful to humans (Bruland and Lohan, 2003; Morel and Saito 2003; Sunda 2012). The following figure a show a schematically representation of the partitioning between dissolved and particulate, as defined by the filter used, and the distribution of the physico-chemical forms within the dissolved pool (Carrasco, unpublished).
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/219961
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