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Title: Procedural policy tools in theory and practice
Authors: Azad Singh Bali
Michael Howlett 
Jenny M. Lewis
M Ramesh 
Issue Date: 17-Aug-2021
Publisher: Routledge
Citation: Azad Singh Bali, Michael Howlett, Jenny M. Lewis, M Ramesh (2021-08-17). Procedural policy tools in theory and practice. Policy and Society 40 (3) : 295-311. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: Policy tools are a critical part of policy-making, providing the ‘means’ by which policy ‘ends’ are achieved. Knowledge of their different origin, nature and capabilities is vital for understanding policy formulation and decision-making, and they have been the subject of inquiry in many policy-related disciplines and sector-specific studies. Yet many crucial aspects of policy tools remain unexplored. Existing studies on policy tools used in policy formulation tend to focus on ‘substantive’ tools–those used to directly affect policy outcomes such as regulation or subsidies–and largely neglect ‘procedural’ tools used to indirectly but significantly affect policy processes and outcomes. A key aim of this special issue is to fill this knowledge gap in the field. This article introduces the issue by establishing that procedural tools play a more determining role in public policy-making than is generally acknowledged and deserve a more systematic inquiry into their workings, their impact on the policy process and the organization and delivery of public and private goods and services.
Source Title: Policy and Society
ISSN: 1449-4035
DOI: 10.1080/14494035.2021.1965379
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