Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/211839
Title: PROPOSED OCCUPANCY PROFILE INPUTS ON THE DIFFERENT PANDEMIC SAFE MANAGEMENT PHASES FOR MEASUREMENT & VERIFICATION NON-ROUTINE ADJUSTMENTS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
Authors: WARREN SNG CHONG WEI
Keywords: ECM
M&V
routine & non-routine adjustments
occupancy schedules/profiles
Issue Date: 5-Dec-2021
Citation: WARREN SNG CHONG WEI (2021-12-05). PROPOSED OCCUPANCY PROFILE INPUTS ON THE DIFFERENT PANDEMIC SAFE MANAGEMENT PHASES FOR MEASUREMENT & VERIFICATION NON-ROUTINE ADJUSTMENTS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS. ScholarBank@NUS Repository.
Abstract: As with sustainability continually being a key discussion point today, one of the key components towards that would be reducing our energy consumption. With the increasing need for energy consumption as technology grows, it is all the more crucial for us to work towards being lean in our energy usage and to develop methods to achieve energy savings where possible. This is achieved via the implementations of Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs). ECMs describe the various methods taken in energy management to achieve energy savings which includes control strategies like strategic zoning, setpoint strategies. Also, retrofitting or designing energy efficient components i.e. LED lighting systems, change of component e.g. VAV in a HVAC system or leveraging on natural lighting, natural ventilation with mechanical cooling etc. These ECMs in theory are stated to achieve a certain value of energy savings but in actual reality, external conditions can cause variations in expected performance of ECMs. Measurement & Verification (M&V) is then done and performed to measure, verify and report such savings to assess the efficacy of proposed ECM and to assess variation, if any, from the projected energy savings. The M&V process also accounts for external conditions as independent variables to capture any possible external factors that might influence the behaviour or alter the energy consumption pattern. This would be done via adjustments to the baseline to ensure an accurate energy savings calculation i.e. adjusted baseline – reporting period energy readings = achieved savings. There would be routine and non-routine adjustments where routine adjustments are factors that are expected to change and are usually done when forecasting while non-routine adjustments (NRA) are only done if it happens in actuality. NRA is done for changes in static factors like occupancy schedules, change in GFA etc. With the pandemic and its associated quarantine and different safe reopening measures. Occupants patterns have changed drastically towards the new normal warranting a need for NRA to be done. This dissertation focuses on buildings situated within educational institutions, the two greatest sectors affect by the pandemic being schools and offices. The changes in occupancy are significant and varies throughout the different the different stages. Occupant data from the different buildings within NUS are collected to observe possible occupancy count patterns in the different phases through these pandemic driven years of 2020 and 2022. Different occupant patterns over the months were observed and captured. With the pandemic having caused a structural change in occupancy schedules, the various variables impacted by this change have indirectly and directly affected energy consumption with certain variables having a stronger effect on energy consumption than some others. There are recommendations provided for future studies going ahead as this study serves to provide a starting point on this topic. The limitations are also discussed to serve as input for improving the accuracy in future studies so that better occupancy profiles can be defined to describe such occupancy schedules in educational buildings during the different pandemic phases. The motivation behind this project could possibly extend towards future studies being able to define and provide more occupancy profiles on other building types for the same purpose of capturing the different profiles throughout the different phases, ultimately serving as inputs for the factor of occupancy changes during adjustments in M&V.
URI: https://scholarbank.nus.edu.sg/handle/10635/211839
Appears in Collections:Bachelor's Theses

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